News Article | April 19, 2017
Effective 100Gb/s single-mode optical transmission can be achieved over 100m of multimode fiber by using advanced modulation schemes and digital-signal processing. Global data traffic is increasing at an unprecedented rate. This increase is due in large part to the rise of cloud computing services, multimedia web applications, and Internet-of-Things technologies. Indeed, the bandwidth requirements imposed by these applications are expected to double network traffic in data centers within five years.1 To cope with these demands, the viability of using new photonics technologies and approaches to improve the performance (i.e., to increase the capacity and reduce the latency) of data-center interconnects must be explored. Furthermore, these new approaches must ensure a reduced carbon footprint and lower operating costs.2 A large amount of research has recently been carried out on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with the aim of meeting these requirements. VCSELs represent one of the most appealing technologies for application to optical interconnects because of the advantages that they provide (e.g., low power consumption, reduced fabrication cost, the feasibility of on-wafer testing, and high coupling efficiencies).3 Additionally, the rapid development of electronics has led to the increased efficacy of advanced modulation techniques over larger bandwidths, thereby significantly increasing the spectral efficiency of communications systems. Combining these new photonics technologies with advanced modulation formats has enabled the development of single-polarization and single-wavelength intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) high-speed links. A number of recent research efforts have achieved effective bitrates of close to 100Gb/s using VCSELs. Specifically, effective bitrates of 94Gb/s over 2m of OM4 multimode fiber (MMF) with an 850nm VCSEL, 95.8Gb/s with a 1550nm VCSEL, and 71Gb/s over 7m of OM3 MMF with an 850nm VCSEL were achieved by means of, respectively, four-level pulse amplitude modulation,4 discrete multitone (DMT) modulation,5 and non-return-to-zero direct modulation.6 By exploiting the versatility of a multiband approach (i.e., carrierless amplitude phase modulation, CAP),7 we have successfully transmitted an effective bitrate of over 100Gb/s through 100m of OM4 MMF.8Multiband CAP modulation provides the same advantages that are characteristic of DMT modulation (i.e., bit and power loading), but with a lower peak-to-average power ratio. These features allow the non-flat frequency response of the transmission channel to be mitigated and the spectral efficiency to be maximized. Additionally, as a result of recent developments, single-mode-operation VCSELs are now available (see Figure 1).9 These enhanced laser sources reduce the transmission impairments that typically arise as a result of intermodal dispersion. As a result of this, their bit-error-rate (BER) performance is below forward-error-correction (FEC) thresholds, and longer links are achieved. In our experimental study, we generated a multiband CAP signal consisting of 10 bands—each with a baud rate of 2.5Gbaud—to modulate the 850nm single-mode VCSEL. By employing bit- and power-loading techniques, we assigned modulation schemes to the bands, ranging from a 64-symbol constellation (64-CAP) to a 4-symbol constellation (4-CAP). We carried this assignment out according to the signal-to-noise ratio of each frequency band to ensure a BER below the 7% overhead FEC threshold (i.e., 3.8×10−3) for all bands. Figure 2 shows the received electrical spectrum—and the corresponding symbol constellation and error vector magnitude—of each band after transmission over 100m of OM4 MMF. By adding the bitrate of each band, we calculated that information was transmitted at a total bitrate of 107.5Gb/s. Furthermore, after removing FEC redundancy, we achieved an effective bitrate of 100.47Gb/s. The central frequencies of each band were separated from their neighbors by 2.55GHz, and the first band had a central frequency of 1.3125GHz. The total bandwidth occupied by all bands was 25.5GHz, resulting in a spectral efficiency of 4.21bit/s/Hz. We were also able to increase the resilience of the transmission to optical-link impairments by reducing the modulation order of the bands and, consequently, decreasing the total bitrate. Such a reduction enables longer links to be reached. Using this scheme, we achieved a maximum total bitrate of 112.5Gb/s in back-to-back tests. Furthermore, by decreasing the total bitrate to 85Gb/s, we achieved transmission over 1km of OM4 MMF with a BER below the 7% FEC threshold (see Figure 3). The bitrates that we achieved over different MMF lengths, and the corresponding modulation schemes of all bands, are shown in Table 1. Table 1. Set of modulation schemes for each multimode fiber (MMF) length tested (i.e., 0, 100, 200, 600, and 1000m) using 2-, 4-, 16-, 32-, and 64-CAP modulation.7 Data transfer carried out using a VCSEL. (Click on table to enlarge.) In summary, we have experimentally validated the feasibility of achieving 100Gb/s short-range links with cost-effective MMF and 850nm VCSELs. The flexibility provided by our multiband CAP-modulation approach enables transmission rates to be maximized with limited power and bandwidth resources. The advanced digital-signal processing techniques and high-order modulation schemes (i.e., that give rise to rates of over 100Gb/s) are enabled as a result of the increased processing capabilities of today's electronics. In our future work, we will focus on assessing and implementing the necessary analog and digital technologies to enable these high-speed optical links in real time. Rafael Puerta would like to thank the Colombian Administrative Department of Science, Technology, and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) for supporting his research. This work has been funded by the European Commission through the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) project ADDAPT (Adaptive Data and Power Aware Transceivers for Optical Communications, grant 619197) and the Marie-Curie project FENDOI. Laboratory equipment was provided through the Polish Innovative Economy Program FOTEH project (POIG.02.01.00-14-197/09).
News Article | April 26, 2017
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News Article | April 27, 2017
According to several independent reports from insiders in South Korea, Samsung expects the Galaxy S8 and Galaxy S8+ to be its best-selling smartphones of all time. Sales of last year’s Galaxy S7 and S7 edge have reportedly topped 52 million units so far, which makes that quite a tall order. Considering how much buzz Samsung managed to stir up despite its Note 7 debacle, and considering how incredibly impressive the new Galaxy S8 and S8+ are, the company’s supposed 60 million unit target could be well within reach. And needless to say, these high-priced, high-margin phones will do wonders for Samsung’s bottom line. But Samsung is much more than just a smartphone maker, and the company has one of its other key divisions to thank for the remarkable Q1 earnings it just reported. Don't Miss: After two weeks with the Galaxy S8, I still think the iPhone 7 Plus is the world’s best phone Samsung on Thursday announced its audited first-quarter earnings, and they were nothing short of explosive. On the back of a huge performance boost in the company’s massive components division, Samsung posted a net profit of 7.68 trillion South Korean won (US$6.8 billion), a 46% increase from the year-ago quarter. In fact, Q1 2017 marked Samsung’s most profitable quarter in three years. Revenue was up slightly to 50.55 trillion won in the March quarter, while operating profit ballooned to 9.90 trillion won, a 48% increase over the same quarter last year. The company’s semiconductor division found the most success in Q1, raking in an operating profit of 6.31 trillion won on consolidated revenue totaling 15.66 trillion won. Samsung said improved sales of its NAND flash storage modules and DRAM memory chips had a big impact on Q1 performance, and it expects its semi business to continue to grow in the second quarter. Strong demand for Samsung’s display panels also contributed 1.30 trillion won in Q1 operating profit on 7.29 trillion in sales. Samsung’s Mobile Communications and Networks Businesses, which now comprise its IM Division, pulled in 2.07 trillion won in operating profit on the back of revenue totaling 23.50 trillion won. Considering the April launch of its new Galaxy S8 and S8+ flagships in addition to continued strength in the company’s semi business, things may be looking even brighter for Samsung in Q2 2017. See the original version of this article on BGR.com
News Article | April 11, 2017
Register your idea to Neste's sustainability Hackathon by 11 May At Slush 2016, Neste presented an open invitation for all digitalization experts interested in combating climate change and protecting human rights to participate in the digitalization of the company's Supplier Due Diligence System. Now we have the pleasure to invite all conceptualization, IT, IM, coding, data visualization and digitalization experts with a passion for sustainability issues to The teams with registered ideas offering the best development potential will be invited to join the global Hackathon organized simultaneously in Helsinki, Finland and Singapore on May 23rd and 24th 2017. More information about the Hackathon, such as rules and registration, can be found on our website www.nestehackathon.com. Follow the Hackathon in social media @Nestecorp and join our global dialogue with a hashtag #hackthesupply. The digitalization challenge focuses on Neste's global Supplier Due Diligence System that helps Neste evaluate and monitor its supply chain. The use of the current system requires manual work and handling of multiple documents between Neste and its various raw material suppliers around the world. "Digitalizing the Supplier Due Diligence System is an ambitious project in which we need the help from the best talents. We put great effort into the sustainability and transparency of our raw material supply chains, and want our new system to help us develop them even further. We expect to receive a number of innovative ideas on how such a system could be developed due to the timeliness of the topic," says Johan Lunabba, Sustainability Director from Neste. The created concepts and ideas will be evaluated by the Hackathon jury consisting of experts from Neste's sustainability and ICT teams, as well as stakeholder representatives. The winning team will be announced at the end of the Hackathon and awarded with a 10,000 euro cash prize. Further information: Johan Lunabba, Director, Sustainability, tel +358 50 458 0795, johan.lunabba(@)neste.com Adrian Suharto, Manager, Sustainability and Public Affairs, Neste Singapore Ltd, tel. +65 9150 3676, adrian.suharto(@)neste.com Read also: Neste shows leading transparency with its site on crude palm oil supply chain Neste in brief Neste (NESTE, Nasdaq Helsinki) creates sustainable choices for the needs of transport, businesses and consumers. Our global range of products and services allows customers to lower their carbon footprint by combining high-quality renewable products and oil products to tailor-made service solutions. We are the world's largest producer of renewable diesel refined from waste and residues, and we are also bringing renewable solutions to the aviation and plastics industries. We want to be a reliable partner, whose expertise, R&D and sustainable practices are widely respected. In 2016, Neste's net sales stood at EUR 11.7 billion, and we were on the Global 100 list of the 100 most sustainable companies in the world. Read more: neste.com; neste.com/sustainability
News Article | April 19, 2017
Q: A friend I know moderately but not terribly well sends me messages via every available medium – text message, messaging app, email and Facebook – far more often than I want to respond. How do I get her to back off without being rude? A: I think what you’re asking is how to de-escalate the friendship without losing the friend, and the answer is it may not be possible. It’s a problem I think about relatively frequently, because it’s tricky, and it feels disloyal, and love and friendship are two of the most important things in life and we reject them at our peril. On the other hand: what you’re talking about – shy of stalking, but a bombardment that suggests a disparity in you and your friend’s relative needs – is difficult and something that the internet has only made worse. Where and when it’s OK to ignore someone and when it isn’t has always been hard to work out, but trying to parse which messaging service is optional and which entails an obligation to reply isn’t straightforward. I think a lot of it depends on how sensitive this person is to your nonverbal cues. (And, I would add, it might depend also on where you are coming from. I am an English person who is very much in favour of passive aggression and will take almost any steps to avoid confrontation. You, on the other hand, may be American and regard this as a form of time-wasting cowardice. Let’s address both.) The passive-aggressive response is, as with Pavlov’s dog, to try to mould this person’s expectations to suit your desired response. So you wait a couple of days before replying to a message and, if it has been sent across multiple mediums, you pick the one that is least likely to generate an automatic reply (avoid IM and text messages at all costs unless you are ready to have a conversation). That leaves email, now the lumbering old lady of digital communication, and thank God we still have it. Ignore chasers of the “Are you there?” / “Everything all right?” kind. After a couple of days, send a cheerful, short response, either giving a reason why you’ve been out of touch, or not – there’s an argument that you shouldn’t have to explain yourself, but this always feels too harsh to me – and promising to catch up soon. I’m trusting that this person is neither having a nervous breakdown nor is in need of genuine help. We’re talking about the kinds of people – and there is one in every social group – who send out 25 phishing texts declaring themselves to be in need of a chat and are happy with whatever comes in. They don’t need you, they need a warm body who will listen and be vaguely sympathetic. I’m not talking about narcissists either, who do all of this but with an added layer of malevolence. There’s no manipulation here other than to get you to respond. And it is probably the case, since you don’t want to lose the friendship, that once you have them on the line, you have a lovely chat. You just don’t want to speak to them every night. What we’re talking about here is over-communicators who have been unleashed and emboldened by the vast number of new channels of communication available to them. Now, you, the person who doesn’t want to be in touch every two days, looks like the freak. This brings me to another point. You can decide that the aggravation isn’t worth it. It’s a strange thing that people whom you rarely see have the power to invade your consciousness more frequently than the people you love. I came late to this realization a couple of years ago when I realized I was spending minutes of every day scorning the line drawings of unicorns and mad screeds put by a second cousin on Facebook. I was giving her more thought than my nearest and dearest and promptly unfollowed her. There is often a performance aspect to over-communicators who, in my experience, operate under a well developed persona, one that requires a lot of feeding. That’s passive aggression. Sometimes people can be trained, and sometimes they can’t, in which case, you may have to graduate to the more grown up and very un-English way to proceed, which is to send one of those emails I instinctively dislike but that I can see are more evolved in their way. These are the ones that start, “Don’t take this the wrong way” or “I’m having trouble bearing up under my weight of correspondence” (although perhaps not phrased as if you have a stick up your bum) or “I’m just giving you a heads up so you’re not offended if I don’t immediately respond.” Maybe it’ll work. Maybe it’ll just prolong the agony. Maybe the friend will think, wow, why am I friends with this person in the first place? I think my main point is that you don’t have to sign up to a schedule of frequency set down by somebody else. (Unless it’s your mum). And while this problem has given rise to a language I hate, there is just no other way to say it. Be polite, be firm and – deep breath – assert your boundaries!
Yang, Young Ok, Im and Yoo | Date: 2012-09-26
Disclosed herein is a method of preparing a solid ink composition, comprising the steps of: reacting 15 25 parts by weight of base oil including coconut oil, palm oil and castor oil and 40 60 parts by weight of aliphatic organic acid of 10 to 20 carbon atoms with 7 15 parts by weight of a caustic soda solution (concentration: 40%) to saponify the base oil and to change the aliphatic organic acid into sodium salt thereof; mixing 3 10 by weight of glycerin, 10 20 by weight of ethanol, 0.1 1.0 by weight of a dye and 1 10 by weight of silica with the reaction product and then melting the mixture at 70 80C; and cooling the molten mixture. The solid ink composition prepared by the method is very transparent, and has excellent miscibility and stability because it is easily mixed with a water-soluble dye or a water-soluble fluorescent dye.
Im and Ryu | Date: 2011-02-23
A horn array antenna (1) for dual linear polarization receiving a first polarization wave and a second polarization wave comprises a plurality of horns (10) to which a mixed wave of the first polarization wave and the second polarization wave enters; a plurality of polarization filtering units (20) provided in each of the horns to separate the incident mixed wave into the first and second polarization waves; a first polarization guide (30) which guides the first polarization waves separated at the polarization filtering units; and a second polarization guide (50) which guides the second polarization waves separated at the polarization filtering units. An upper portion of each polarization filtering unit is formed as a quadrilateral space and each polarization filtering unit has four walls including a first, second, third and fourth walls. A stepped portion (25) is extended from a lower portion of the first wall to an interior of the polarization filtering unit, whereby a lower portion of the polarization filtering unit is formed as a quadrilateral space with a narrower width than that of the upper portion. An extended portion is formed on an upper portion of the stepped portion and a first polarization inlet is formed on the second wall opposite to the first wall to provide the first polarization wave to the first polarization guide.
Im and Oh | Date: 2011-11-09
Provided is an air-filling type packaging material. The air-filling type packaging material includes a plurality of air-cells, an air passage, a communication passage, and a sealing member. The plurality of air-cells are divided by adhesion of an upper sheet and a lower sheet and performing a shock-absorbing function. The air passage is formed by adhesion of an upper sheet and a lower sheet such that external air flows into the air-cell. The communication passage is formed by adhesion of the upper and lower sheets, and connected to the air passage at one side thereof and connected to the air-cell to discharge air at the other side thereof. The sealing member is disposed in the communication passage between a portion thereof connected to an air passage and a portion thereof connected to the air-cell to prevent air filled in the air-cell from flowing backward.
Im | Date: 2016-01-06
The present invention relates to an apparatus for providing an object to be medically examined by blowing, wherein air is blown into a container in which an object to be medically examined is stored, so as to make the uniform distribution state of the object to be medically examined from the inside of the container, thereby ensuring the sameness of the object to be medically examined, which is to be extracted from the container.
Im | Date: 2015-05-27
Disclosed herein is a lid assembly for an airtight container in which an airtight container product may be directed in various manners by having an improved lid assembly such that a lid body and locking blade portions are integrally formed of different materials, and Tritan resin which has high transparency and is an eco-friendly material may be effectively applied to the lid assembly. To this end, the lid assembly for an airtight container includes a lid body (210) injection-molded with synthetic resin so as to cover an upper portion of an airtight container (100), the lid body (210) having a slot-shaped embedded groove (211) provided in a band form along an upper surface edge thereof and a packing groove (212) provided in a band form along a lower surface edge thereof, a lid-flange member (220) injection-molded with synthetic resin so as to surround an edge of the lid body (210) and have a ring shape after the lid-flange member (220) is inserted and arranged in a synthetic resin injection mold, the lid-flange member (220) including an inside hooking jaw (221) provided on an inner side thereof such that the inside hooking jaw (221) is hooked by an inside of the embedded groove (211) of the lid body (210), a flange (223) provided on an outer side thereof such that the flange (223) surrounds the edge of the lid body (210) and has an outside hooking jaw (222) hooked by an outer wall lower end of the packing groove (212), and locking blades (226) integrally formed at regular intervals along an edge of the flange (223) through snap-hinge portions (224) and having locking jaws (225) elastically hooked by a hooking protrusion (110) of the airtight container (100), and a silicon packing (230) installed in the packing groove (212) of the lid body (210) so as to come into close contact with the opened upper portion of the airtight container (100).