ILSI Research Foundation

Washington, DC, United States

ILSI Research Foundation

Washington, DC, United States
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Wolt J.D.,Iowa State University | Raybould A.,Syngenta | Fitzpatrick J.W.,ILSI Research Foundation | Burachik M.,Oficina de Biotecnologia | And 5 more authors.
Transgenic Research | Year: 2010

Problem formulation is the first step in environmental risk assessment (ERA) where policy goals, scope, assessment endpoints, and methodology are distilled to an explicitly stated problem and approach for analysis. The consistency and utility of ERAs for genetically modified (GM) plants can be improved through rigorous problem formulation (PF), producing an analysis plan that describes relevant exposure scenarios and the potential consequences of these scenarios. A properly executed PF assures the relevance of ERA outcomes for decision-making. Adopting a harmonized approach to problem formulation should bring about greater uniformity in the ERA process for GM plants among regulatory regimes globally. This paper is the product of an international expert group convened by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Research Foundation. © 2009 The Author(s).


Buizer J.L.,University of Arizona | Dow K.,University of South Carolina | Black M.E.,University of Arizona | Jacobs K.L.,University of Arizona | And 8 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2016

The leaders and authors of the Third US National Climate Assessment (NCA3) developed new modes of engaging academia, the private sector, government agencies and civil society to support their needs for usable, rigorous, and timely information and better connect science and decision-making. A strategic vision for assessment activities into the future was built during the NCA3 process, including recommendations on how to establish a sustained assessment process that would integrate evolving scientific understanding into decision making to manage the risks of climate change over time. This vision includes a collaborative assessment process that involves partnerships across a diverse and widely distributed set of non-governmental and governmental entities. The new approach to assessments would produce timely, scientifically sound climate information products and processes, rather than focusing on the production of single quadrennial synthesis reports. If properly implemented, a sustained assessment would be more efficient and cost-effective, avoiding the painful and time-consuming process of beginning the assessment process anew every 4 years. This ongoing assessment would also encourage scientific and social innovations and explore new insights and opportunities, building the capacity to advance the development and delivery of climate information to meet societal requirements and benefit from scientific opportunities. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Froggett S.J.,Froggett and Associates LLC | Clancy S.F.,Evonik Industries | Boverhof D.R.,Dow Chemical Company | Canady R.A.,ILSI Research Foundation
Particle and Fibre Toxicology | Year: 2014

Advances in adding nanomaterials to various matrices have occurred in tandem with the identification of potential hazards associated with exposure to pure forms of nanomaterials. We searched multiple research publication databases and found that, relative to data generated on potential nanomaterial hazards or exposures, very little attention has focused on understanding the potential and conditions for release of nanomaterials from nanocomposites. However, as a prerequisite to exposure studying release is necessary to inform risk assessments. We identified fifty-four studies that specifically investigated the release of nanomaterials, and review them in the following release scenario groupings: machining, weathering, washing, contact and incineration. While all of the identified studies provided useful information, only half were controlled experiments. Based on these data, the debris released from solid, non-food nanocomposites contains in varying frequencies, a mixture of four types of debris. Most frequently identified are (1) particles of matrix alone, and slightly less often, the (2) matrix particles exhibit the nanomaterial partially or fully embedded; far less frequently is (3) the added nanomaterial entirely dissociated from the matrix identified: and most rare are (4) dissolved ionic forms of the added nanomaterial. The occurrence of specific debris types appeared to be dependent on the specific release scenario and environment. These data highlight that release from nanocomposites can take multiple forms and that additional research and guidance would be beneficial, allowing for more consistent characterization of the release potential of nanomaterials. In addition, these data support calls for method validation and standardization, as well as understanding how laboratory release scenarios relate to real-world conditions. Importantly, as risk is considered to be a function of the inherent hazards of a substance and the actual potential for exposure, data on nanomaterial release dynamics and debris composition from commercially relevant nanocomposites are a valuable starting point for consideration in fate and transport modeling, exposure assessment, and risk assessment frameworks for nanomaterials. © 2014 Froggett et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Gustafson D.,ILSI Research Foundation | Gutman A.,ILSI Research Foundation | Leet W.,ILSI Research Foundation | Drewnowski A.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Sustainability considerations have been absent from most food security assessments conducted to date, despite the tremendous economic, environmental, and social implications of meeting accelerating food demand in the face of water shortages and climate change. In addition, previous food security work has generally focused only on achieving adequate calories, rather than addressing dietary diversity and micronutrient adequacy, both of which are critical to maintaining a healthy overall nutritional status. In response to the limitations of previous assessments, a new methodology is proposed here based on the concept of "sustainable nutrition security" (SNS). This novel assessment methodology is intended to remedy both kinds of deficiencies in the previous work by defining seven metrics, each based on a combination of multiple indicators, for use in characterizing sustainable nutrition outcomes of food systems: (1) food nutrient adequacy; (2) ecosystem stability; (3) food affordability and availability; (4) sociocultural wellbeing; (5) food safety; (6) resilience; and (7) waste and loss reduction. Each of the metrics comprises multiple indicators that are combined to derive an overall score (0-100). A novel SNS assessment methodology based on these metrics can be deployed by decision-makers and investors to set meaningful goals, track progress, and evaluate the potential impact of food system interventions intended to improve sustainability and human nutrition outcomes. © 2016 by the authors.


PubMed | University of Kentucky, ILSI Research Foundation and GMO Unit
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2015

RNA interference, or RNAi, refers to a set of biological processes that make use of conserved cellular machinery to silence genes. Although there are several variations in the source and mechanism, they are all triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is processed by a protein complex into small, single stranded RNA, referred to as small interfering RNAs (siRNA) with complementarity to sequences in genes targeted for silencing. The use of the RNAi mechanism to develop new traits in plants has fueled a discussion about the environmental safety of the technology for these applications, and this was the subject of a symposium session at the 13th ISBGMO in Cape Town, South Africa. This paper continues that discussion by proposing research areas that may be beneficial for future environmental risk assessments of RNAi-based genetically modified plants, with a particular focus on non-target organism assessment.


Roberts A.F.,ILSI Research Foundation | Devos Y.,GMO Unit | Zhou X.,University of Kentucky
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

RNA interference, or RNAi, refers to a set of biological processes that make use of conserved cellular machinery to silence genes. Although there are several variations in the source and mechanism, they are all triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is processed by a protein complex into small, single stranded RNA, referred to as small interfering RNAs (siRNA) with complementarity to sequences in genes targeted for silencing. The use of the RNAi mechanism to develop new traits in plants has fueled a discussion about the environmental safety of the technology for these applications, and this was the subject of a symposium session at the 13th ISBGMO in Cape Town, South Africa. This paper continues that discussion by proposing research areas that may be beneficial for future environmental risk assessments of RNAi-based genetically modified plants, with a particular focus on non-target organism assessment. © 2015 Roberts, Devos, Lemgo and Zhou.


Kibbe D.L.,ILSI Research Foundation | Hackett J.,George Washington University | Hurley M.,George Washington University | McFarland A.,George Washington University | And 3 more authors.
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: Current literature supports the link between physical activity (PA) or fitness and a child's ability to achieve academically; however, little structured activity time is incorporated into elementary school classrooms. This paper explores the impact of a classroom-based PA program, TAKE 10!, and health-academic integration through existing state and federal policy and programming. Methods: Evidence from journal articles, published abstracts, and reports were examined to summarize the impact of TAKE 10! on student health and other outcomes. This paper reviews 10 years of TAKE 10! studies and makes recommendations for future research. Results: Teachers are willing and able to implement classroom-based PA integrated with grade-specific lessons (4.2. days/wk). Children participating in the TAKE 10! program experience higher PA levels (13%>), reduced time-off-task (20.5%), and improved reading, math, spelling and composite scores (p <0.01). Furthermore, students achieved moderate energy expenditure levels (6.16 to 6.42 METs) and studies suggest that BMI may be positively impacted (decreases in BMI z score over 2 years [P <0.01]). Conclusion: TAKE 10! demonstrates that integrating movement with academics in elementary school classrooms is feasible, helps students focus on learning, and enables them to realize improved PA levels while also helping schools achieve wellness policies. © 2011.


Takle E.S.,Iowa State University | Gustafson D.,ILSI Research Foundation | Beachy R.,Donald Danforth Plant Science Center | Nelson G.C.,International Food Policy Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Economics | Year: 2013

Agreement is developing among agricultural scientists on the emerging inability of agriculture to meet growing global food demands. Changes in trends of weather conditions projected by global climate models will challenge physiological limits of crops and exacerbate the global food challenge by 2050. These climate- and constraint-driven crop production challenges are interconnected within a complex global economy, where diverse factors add to price volatility and food scarcity. Our scenarios of the impact of climate change on food security through 2050 for internationally traded crops show that climate change does not threaten near-term US food security due to the availability of adaptation strategies. However, as climate continues to change beyond 2050 current adaptation measures will not be sufficient to meet growing food demand. Climate scenarios for higher-level carbon emissions exacerbate the food shortfall, although uncertainty in projections of future precipitation is a limitation to impact studies. © Author(s) 2013.


PubMed | ILSI Research Foundation
Type: | Journal: Preventive medicine | Year: 2011

Current literature supports the link between physical activity (PA) or fitness and a childs ability to achieve academically; however, little structured activity time is incorporated into elementary school classrooms. This paper explores the impact of a classroom-based PA program, TAKE 10!, and health-academic integration through existing state and federal policy and programming.Evidence from journal articles, published abstracts, and reports were examined to summarize the impact of TAKE 10! on student health and other outcomes. This paper reviews 10 years of TAKE 10! studies and makes recommendations for future research.Teachers are willing and able to implement classroom-based PA integrated with grade-specific lessons (4.2 days/wk). Children participating in the TAKE 10! program experience higher PA levels (13%>), reduced time-off-task (20.5%), and improved reading, math, spelling and composite scores (p<0.01). Furthermore, students achieved moderate energy expenditure levels (6.16 to 6.42 METs) and studies suggest that BMI may be positively impacted (decreases in BMI z score over 2 years [P<0.01]).TAKE 10! demonstrates that integrating movement with academics in elementary school classrooms is feasible, helps students focus on learning, and enables them to realize improved PA levels while also helping schools achieve wellness policies.

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