Kretser A.,ILSI North America |
Murphy D.,ILSI North America |
Dwyer J.,Tufts University
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017
Scientific integrity is at the forefront of the scientific research enterprise. This paper provides an overview of key existing efforts on scientific integrity by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia from 1989 to April 2016. It serves as a resource for the scientific community on scientific integrity work and helps to identify areas in which more action is needed. Overall, there is tremendous activity in this area and there are clear linkages among the efforts of the five sectors. All the same, scientific integrity needs to remain visible in the scientific community and evolve along with new research paradigms. High priority in instilling these values falls upon all stakeholders. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. © 2017, © International Life Sciences Institute North America.
Karmaus A.L.,Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc. |
Trautman T.D.,Retired |
Krishan M.,ILSI North America |
Filer D.L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill |
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2017
High-throughput in vitro assays and exposure prediction efforts are paving the way for modeling chemical risk; however, the utility of such extensive datasets can be limited or misleading when annotation fails to capture current chemical usage. To address this data gap and provide context for food-use in the United States (US), manual curation of food-relevant chemicals in ToxCast was conducted. Chemicals were categorized into three food-use categories: (1) direct food additives, (2) indirect food additives, or (3) pesticide residues. Manual curation resulted in 30% of chemicals having new annotation as well as the removal of 319 chemicals, most due to cancellation or only foreign usage. These results highlight that manual curation of chemical use information provided significant insight affecting the overall inventory and chemical categorization. In total, 1211 chemicals were confirmed as current day food-use in the US by manual curation; 1154 of these chemicals were also identified as food-related in the globally sourced chemical use information from Chemical/Product Categories database (CPCat). The refined list of food-use chemicals and the sources highlighted for compiling annotated information required to confirm food-use are valuable resources for providing needed context when evaluating large-scale inventories such as ToxCast. © 2017 The Authors
News Article | May 4, 2017
The conclusions were based on over 740 studies, which found consuming 400 milligrams (mg) - around four cups of coffee - as safe for healthy adults. Intakes up to 300 milligrams per day (mg/day) in pregnant women and up to 2.5 milligrams per Kg bodyweight per day (mg/kg-day) in children and adolescents remain acceptable. “Evidence generally supports that consumption of up to 400 mg caffeine/day in healthy adults is not associated with overt, adverse cardiovascular effects, behavioural effects, reproductive and developmental effects, acute effects, or bone status,” the study commented. The amounts correspond to those that has long been considered safe by the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA). In its 98-page draft assessment at the start of 2015, the regulatory authority said the same for single doses of up to 200mg for adults (18-65 years). In recent years, attention has shifted from caffeine levels contained in coffee and tea to beverages such as energy drinks that have been linked to a number of fatalities. These cases were the result of energy drink consumption taken prior to exercise. There is also the possibility that the drinks’ blend of ingredients like taurine and D-glucurono-γ-lactone and its interaction with caffeine may have contributed to these events, although EFSA have dismissed this. The review supported a shift in caffeine research to focus on effects in establishing epigenetic trends, effects in unhealthy populations, individuals with pre-existing conditions that could leave individuals to be at greater risk compared to healthy adults and healthy pregnant women. To try and assess its effects on health, researchers from the consulting firm Toxstrategies along with colleagues from the University of Pennsylvania, Oklahoma and Manitoba, led a review of studies published between 2001 and 2015. The review, which received assistance from the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Caffeine Working Group, The American Beverage Association (ABA) and the National Coffee Association (NCA), looked at caffeine’s toxicity as well as effects on bone, heart, brain and the reproductive system. "This Systematic Review provides evidence that furthers our understanding of caffeine on human health," said Dr Eric Hentges, executive director, ILSI North America. "This review provides the research community with data and valuable evidence to support the development and execution of future research on caffeine safety that will impact public health.” In addition to the levels recommended for healthy adults and pregnant women, the review also identified that for child and adolescent populations 2.5 mg caffeine per day remained an acceptable standard. The research team also bought up the issue of excessive consumption of capsules or powders. Ten grams of caffeine - around 100 cups of coffee – they said was considered a lethal dose. They said that their findings were supportive of regulatory measures to restrict the number of capsules per entire pack as well as public warnings regarding the dangers of caffeine powder. Referring to EFSA findings in which single doses of caffeine of up to 200 mg were deemed safe, the data also addressed caffeine’s effects in combination with ingredients found in energy drinks. “It is our speculation that the complexity of trying to account for all of these factors and desire to provide a safe value for all populations likely help to explain the conservatism in the single dose designation,” the study concluded. “Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children.”
Navia J.L.,McNeil Nutritionals LLC |
Byers T.,Aurora University |
Djordjevic D.,ILSI North America |
Hentges E.,ILSI North America |
And 6 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2010
The interpretation and integration of epidemiological studies detecting weak associations (RR <2) with data from other study designs (e.g., animal models and human intervention trials) is both challenging and vital for making science-based dietary recommendations in the nutrition and food safety communities. The 2008 ILSI North America "Decision-Making for Recommendations and Communication Based on Totality of Food-Related Research" workshop provided an overview of epidemiological methods, and case-study examples of how weak associations have been incorporated into decision making for nutritional recommendations. Based on the workshop presentations and dialogue among the participants, three clear strategies were provided for the use of weak associations in informing nutritional recommendations for optimal health. First, enable more effective integration of data from all sources through the use of genetic and nutritional biomarkers; second, minimize the risk of bias and confounding through the adoption of rigorous quality-control standards, greater emphasis on the replication of study results, and better integration of results from independent studies, perhaps using adaptive study designs and Bayesian meta-analysis methods; and third, emphasize more effective and truthful communication to the public about the evolving understanding of the often complex relationship between nutrition, lifestyle, and optimal health. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Rowe S.,SR Strategy LLC |
Alexander N.,SR Strategy LLC |
Weaver C.M.,Purdue University |
Dwyer J.T.,University of New England at Biddeford |
And 7 more authors.
Health Policy | Year: 2013
The ever-increasing complexity of the food supply has magnified the importance of ongoing research into nutrition and food safety issues that have significant impact on public health. At the same time, ethical questions have been raised regarding conflict of interest, making it more challenging to form the expert panels that advise government agencies and public health officials in formulating nutrition and food safety policy. Primarily due to the growing complexity of the interactions among government, industry, and academic research institutions, increasingly stringent conflict-of-interest policies may have the effect of barring the most experienced and knowledgeable nutrition and food scientists from contributing their expertise on the panels informing public policy. This paper explores the issue in some depth, proposing a set of principles for determining considerations for service on expert advisory committees. Although the issues around scientific policy counsel and the selection of advisory panels clearly have global applicability, the context for their development had a US and Canadian focus in this work. The authors also call for a broader discussion in all sectors of the research community as to whether and how the process of empaneling food science and nutrition experts might be improved. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Wallace T.C.,ILSI North America |
Guarner F.,Hebron University |
Madsen K.,University of Alberta |
Cabana M.D.,University of California at San Francisco |
And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2011
Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in appropriate amounts. Over 700 randomized, controlled, human studies have been conducted with probiotics thus far, with the results providing strong support for the use of probiotics in the clinical prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders and metabolic syndrome. The present review is based on webinar presentations that were developed by the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) in partnership with the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) and the North American branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America). The presentations provided gastroenterologists and researchers with fundamental and current scientific information on the influence of gut microbiota on human health and disease, as well as clinical intervention strategies and practical guidelines for the use of probiotics and prebiotics. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.
Rowe S.,SR Strategy LLC |
Alexander N.,SR Strategy LLC |
Kretser A.,ILSI North America |
Steele R.,Pennsylvania State University |
And 8 more authors.
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2013
The present article articulates principles for effective public-private partnerships (PPPs) in scientific research. Recognizing that PPPs represent one approach for creating research collaborations and that there are other methods outside the scope of this article, PPPs can be useful in leveraging diverse expertise among government, academic, and industry researchers to address public health needs and questions concerned with nutrition, health, food science, and food and ingredient safety. A three-step process was used to identify the principles proposed herein: step 1) review of existing PPP guidelines, both in the peer-reviewed literature and at 16 disparate non-industry organizations; step 2) analysis of relevant successful or promising PPPs; and step 3) formal background interviews of 27 experienced, senior-level individuals from academia, government, industry, foundations, and non-governmental organizations. This process resulted in the articulation of 12 potential principles for establishing and managing successful research PPPs. The review of existing guidelines showed that guidelines for research partnerships currently reside largely within institutions rather than in the peer-reviewed literature. This article aims to introduce these principles into the literature to serve as a framework for dialogue and for future PPPs. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.
Kretser A.,International Life science Institute ILSI North America |
Dunn C.,North Carolina State University |
Devirgiliis R.,ILSI North America |
Levine K.,North Carolina State University
Nutrition Today | Year: 2014
Consumers face a wide variety of options when selecting foods to feed themselves and their households, and they must balance a host of factors, including cost, preparation time, nutrition, taste, cooking skills, shelf life, food waste, and food safety. Each of these factors adds or subtracts value and helps determine the true cost of a food item based on an individual's personal value system. If a single variable, such as cost, is examined, it may provide an incomplete picture of the true value of that food. A new Web-based application, Food Value Analysis, permits nutrition educators to evaluate relative costs as well as monitor adherence to dietary recommendations when consumers select one version of a food over another. This analysis demonstrates how the application can be used to compare differences among similar foods of different levels of processing. Nutrition professionals can use the application to help consumers make appropriate trade-offs and reach dietary goals, while accommodating differences in cooking skills as well as time and budgetary constraints.
Decision-making for recommendations and communication based on totality of food-related research, an ILSI North America-sponsored workshop at the omni shoreham hotel, Washington, DC, December 15, 2008
Djordjevic D.,ILSI North America
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2010
The extended abstracts in this report are based on presentations from the Workshop on Decision-Making for Dietary Recommendations and Communication Based on Totality of Food-Related Research, which was organized and sponsored by the Technical Committees on Food and Chemical Safety, Lipids, and Carbohydrates of the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America) and partially supported by the American Meat Institute Foundation. The workshop was held at the Omni Shoreham Hotel in Washington, DC, on December 15, 2008. The aims of this workshop were to educate the nutrition and food safety communities about current practices in the field of epidemiology regarding the interpretation of weak associations and to stimulate a dialogue around improving the transparency and approaches to the use of epidemiological data in combination with other types of data for the development of public health recommendations. The workshop provided an overview of epidemiological methods, provided case-study examples of applications, and reviewed appropriate interpretation and application of epidemiological data and decision making for recommendations. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
PubMed | ILSI North America
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrition reviews | Year: 2011
Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in appropriate amounts. Over 700 randomized, controlled, human studies have been conducted with probiotics thus far, with the results providing strong support for the use of probiotics in the clinical prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders and metabolic syndrome. The present review is based on webinar presentations that were developed by the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) in partnership with the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) and the North American branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI North America). The presentations provided gastroenterologists and researchers with fundamental and current scientific information on the influence of gut microbiota on human health and disease, as well as clinical intervention strategies and practical guidelines for the use of probiotics and prebiotics.