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Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Gebreyesus G.,Jigjiga University | Haile A.,ICARDA | Dessie T.,ILRI
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

Characterization of the Short-eared Somali goat population around Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, was undertaken in a community-based and participatory approach. Range of participatory tools, including Focal Group Discussions, participatory mappings and transect walks, were employed to study the local community's Indigenous knowledge and practices in animal breeding. The breeding objective was defined in a participatory manner through own-flock ranking experiments. Physical description of the goat population was made based on the "key characteristics" concept used by the community to distinguish their goat type among other breeds within their migratory reach. The Issa community maintains a perception of special association towards the Short-eared Somali goat type, claiming a historic role in its development and adaptation. Local myths persistent in the community associate the origin of the Short-eared Somali goat breed with the communal ethno-history. The community generally practices selective pure breeding employing rather complex indigenous knowledge and traditional practices aimed at polishing the gene pool towards the dictates of the environment. Patchy color patterns were generally dominant (59.8%) in the goat population, while 34% of the patched goats had a unique pattern of black spots on the center core of the face and a black stripe across the spine. Goats were kept for multifaceted purposes ranging from products like milk and meat to functions in socio-cultural and financial state of affairs. The production system was characterized with lack of feed supplementation and rangelands provide the only source of feed throughout the year. Although the production environment was characterized with recurrent droughts and high prevalence of goat diseases, goats were found to have significant contributions to the livelihood of the Issa pastoralists in the study area. Source

Mekonnen A.,Haramaya University | Haile A.,ICARDA | Dessie T.,ILRI | Mekasha Y.,Haramaya University
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

The survey was carried out in Horro district of Horro Guduru zone, west part of Ethiopia. The objectives of the survey were: to describe cattle production system, trait preferences, breeding practices, and constraints in utilization of the breed and to use the information generated as baseline data to design breeding strategy of the breed. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, group discussions and secondary data collections from different sources. Statistical Package for Social Science was employed to analyze data. Horro cattle are kept in a mixed crop-livestock production system and are the dominant livestock species in the area. Cattle have multi-functional roles in the production systems. Among reason of keeping cattle, draught power was ranked first followed by milk production. Farmers prefer composite traits from their male and female cattle. Draught power performance, body size, hump size, adaptability and coat color were among the higher ranked preferred traits for male cattle in that order. Preferred traits for female cattle include milk yield, fat yield, calving interval, adaptability and coat color. Reported productivity of animals in terms of milk production and reproductive performance is generally low. The breeding system is pure breeding and cattle owners have developed a culling mechanism for maintaining the desired quality of their animals. Among the problems of cattle production in the area, seasonal feed shortage, diseases, labor shortage and lack of exotic bull were the major ones. Therefore, addressing these constraints is very essential to develop a successful genetic improvement programme in this area for cattle. It is concluded that breed improvement should consider the multipurpose utility of Horro breed, where it is feasible with improved feeding and proper management systems. Source

Saqalli M.,University of Versailles | Gerard B.,ILRI | Bielders C.L.,Catholic University of Louvain | Defourny P.,Catholic University of Louvain
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2011

The aim of this article is to analyze the impact of development interventions on the population of three Nigerien villages that differ in terms of their agro-ecological, social and economic characteristics. This is performed by simulating the behavior of individuals in an agent-based modeling framework which integrates the village characteristics as well as the family internal rules that condition access to economic and production activities. Villagers are differentiated according to the social and agro-ecological constraints they are subjected to. Two development project interventions are simulated, assuming no land scarcity: increasing the availability of inorganic fertilizers for farmers and an inventory credit technique based on millet grain. Two distinct approaches were used to model the rationale of farmers' decision making: gains or losses in economic value or gains or losses in within-village "reputation" Our results show that village populations do not respond en masse to development interventions. Reputation has little effect on the population behavior and should be considered more as a local proxy for wealth amongst villagers, suggesting the monetization of these societies. Populations involve themselves in the two simulated development interventions only at sites where savings are possible. Some level of household food security and investment capacity is actually required to take part in the development interventions, which are largely conditioned by family manpower and size. As long as uncultivated land remains available in the village territory, support for inorganic fertilizers has little impact in the absence of any intensification process. Inventory credit engages a maximum of 25% of the population at the site with medium agro-ecological conditions. Therefore, both interventions should be viewed as a potential support tool for a limited part of the population capable of going beyond the survival level, but not as a generic poverty-alleviation panacea. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Telisman Prtenjak M.,University of Zagreb | Horvat I.,Meteorological and Hydrological Service | Tomazic I.,EUMETSAT | Kvakic M.,ILRI | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2015

The impact of mesoscale structures on the occurrence of anomalous propagation (AP) conditions for radio waves, including ducts, superrefractive, and subrefractive conditions, was studied. The chosen meteorological situations are the bora wind and the sporadic sea/land breeze (SB/LB) during three selected cases over a large portion of the northern Adriatic. For this purpose, we used available radio soundings and numerical mesoscale model simulations (of real cases and their sensitivity tests) at a horizontal resolution of 1.5-km and 81 vertical levels. The model simulated the occurrences of AP conditions satisfactorily, although their intensities and frequency were underestimated at times. Certain difficulties appeared in reproducing the vertical profile of the modified refractive index, which is mainly dependent on the accuracy of the modeled humidity. The spatial distributions of summer AP conditions reveal that the surface layer above the sea (roughly between 30 and 100 m asl) is often covered by superrefractive conditions and ducts. The SB is highly associated with the formations of AP conditions: (i) in the first 100-m asl, where trapping and superrefractive conditions form because of the advection of cold and moist air, and (ii) inside the transition layer between the SB body and the elevated return flow in the form of subrefractive conditions. When deep convection occurs, all three types of AP conditions are caused by the downdraft beneath the cumulonimbus cloud base in its mature phase that creates smaller but marked pools of cold and dry air. The bora wind usually creates a pattern of AP conditions associated with the hydraulic jump and influences distribution of AP conditions over the sea surface. ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Mengesha M.,Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research EIAR | Tamir B.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Dessie T.,ILRI
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2011

This study was conducted in four Peasant Associations in Jamma district. A total of 120 households from four PAs were involved in the study. Ninety eight percent of farmers were supplementing extra feeds and water for their chickens, with the main proportion of food leftover (26.4%) followed by spoiled grain (25.1%). The proportions of households providing supplementary feeding were: 19.8, 21.5, 37.3 and 21.4% in the morning, at noon, afternoon and evening respectively. Most of the households (77.7%) were not giving feeds separately to the flock compositions. Households were practicing of chicken selection with the main characters of egg productivity (35.4) and body weight (38.4%). Majority of households (78%) were using their living room for birds penning at night and women were more (72%) responsible for flock management. The larger eggs with oval shape and smooth in eggshell were the preferred characters in selection of incubating eggs. Farmers (38%) adapted a practice of mixing local eggs with exotic or crossbred eggs while incubating for better hatchability of exotic or crossbred eggs. Around 73% the respondents reported that the highest mortality of chicks was occurring up to 2 weeks of age. But around 12.6% of the households were treating their sick birds with traditional-treatments. Ninety-one per cent of farmers pointed out that more frequently occurring and devastating disease was Newcastle Disease. Source

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