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Bloomington, IL, United States

Illinois Wesleyan University is an independent undergraduate liberal arts college located in Bloomington, Illinois. Founded in 1850, the central portion of the present campus was acquired in 1854 with the first building erected in 1856. It comprises 17 academic departments offering 50 majors and 476 courses.The University's mission is to foster the traditional liberal arts of creativity, character, and knowledge. Its motto – Scientia et sapientia, or "Knowledge and wisdom" – was coined by famed explorer and Wesleyan Professor John Wesley Powell. Wikipedia.

Stout L.N.,Illinois Wesleyan University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2010

The object of this study is to look at categorical approaches to many valued logic, both propositional and predicate, to see how different logical properties result from different parts of the situation. In particular, the relationship between the categorical fabric I introduced at Linz in 2004 and the Fuzzy Logics studied by Hájek (2003) [5], Esteva et al. (2003) [1], and Hájek (1998) [4], comes from restricting the kind of structures used for truth values. We see how the structure of the various kinds of algebras shows up in the categorical logic, giving a variant on natural deduction for these logics. Quantification typically needs more completeness than is present in the algebras used in Hájek (1998) [4], hence the need for safe interpretations. The categorical setting gives a predicate logic without variables. The language in the more traditional sense comes from a structure built on a particular freely generated Cartesian category. Formulas have a clear meaning in that more restricted context. Interpretation of the language in other categorical fabrics is given by application of a product preserving functor. Traditional completeness results relate to this kind of interpretation. Completeness can also be understood as showing that the derivable truths in the general fabric are the necessary truths: those which are true in all of the possible worlds. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Stout L.N.,Illinois Wesleyan University
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2010

In this paper we consider what it means for a logic to be non-commutative, how to generate examples of structures with a non-commutative operation *which have enough nice properties to serve as the truth values for a logic. Inference in the propositional logic is gotten from the categorical properties (products, coproducts, monoida land closed structures, adjoint functors) of the categories of truth values.We then show how to extend this view of propositional logic to a predicate logic using categories of propositions about a type A with functors giving change of type and adjoints giving quantifiers. In the case where the semantics takes place in Set (L) (Goguen's categoryof L-fuzzy sets), the categories of predicates about A can be represented as internal category objects with the quantifiers as internal functors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rightsreserved.

Lessen B.S.,Illinois Wesleyan University
Advances in Neonatal Care | Year: 2011

PURPOSE: Preterm infants frequently experience oral feeding difficulties due to underdeveloped oral motor skills and the lack of coordination of sucking, swallowing, and respiration. The infants' ability to consume all feedings orally while maintaining physiologic stability and weight gain is necessary for their discharge. Therefore, difficulty with oral feeding leads to longer hospital stays and higher costs. For example, with more than half a million of premature infants born each year, a 3-day decrease in hospital stay would save more than 2 billion dollars annually. There is a need for evidencedbased interventions that facilitate development of oral-motor skills, leading to improved oral feeding, thus shortening hospital stays and lowering costs. The purpose of this research was to test the newly developed Premature Infant Oral Motor Intervention (PIOMI) beginning at 29 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), before oral feedings were introduced, to determine whether the prefeeding intervention would result in a shorter transition from gavage to total oral feedings and a shorter length of hospital stay (LOS). The PIOMI is a 5-minute oral motor intervention that provides assisted movement to activate muscle contraction and provides movement against resistance to build strength. The focus of the intervention is to increase functional response to pressure and movement and control of movements for the lips, cheeks, jaw, and tongue. The cheeks (internal and external), lips, gums, tongue, and palate were stimulated per specific protocol with finger stroking. SUBJECTS: A total of 19 infants from 1 level III NICU born between 26 and 29 weeks PMA: 10 in the experimental group and 9 in the control group. DESIGN: A randomized, blinded, clinical trial was conducted to examine outcomes related to the newly developed PIOMI. METHODS: Beginning at 29 weeks PMA (and before the introduction of oral feeding), the experimental group received the PIOMI for 5 minutes per day for 7 consecutive days. The control group received a sham intervention to keep staff and parents blinded to the infants' group assignment. Physiological and behavioral stabilities were continually assessed throughout the intervention. A chart review was then conducted to compare the transition from gavage feeding to total oral feedings between the experimental and control group, as well as LOS. RESULTS: The PIOMI was well tolerated by 29-week PMA infants, as evidenced by physiological and behavioral cues. Infants who received the once-daily PIOMI transitioned from their first oral feeding to total oral feedings 5 days sooner than controls (P = .043) and were discharged 2.6 days sooner than controls. CONCLUSION: This pilot work supports further study on the use of the PIOMI with preterm infants to enhance oralfeeding skills and decrease LOS. Copyright © 2011 by the National Association of Neonatal Nurses.

Walter B.E.,Illinois Wesleyan University
Journal of Fish Biology | Year: 2013

The skeletogenesis and osteology of the syncranium of the redeye tetra Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae is described. Skeletal development is rapid, with many elements of the chondrocranium and splanchnocranium well formed prior to the onset of ossification. The chondrocranium develops from an initial set of cartilaginous precursors, and continued elaboration proceeds from a series of processes which expand and converge to form the floor of the cranial vault, the otic capsule, the supraorbital bridge and the ethmoid region. Prodigious growth is observed for a number of splanchnocranial elements, including the Meckel's cartilage and the ceratohyal cartilage. Ossification occurs in overlapping phases with initial ossification of the jaws and neurocranial floor followed by the splanchnocranium, the supraorbital bridges and the ethmoid and cranial vault. Teeth are observed primarily on the premaxilla and dentary, while a single tooth is present on the maxilla. Particular cartilages, which had originally formed in the early larva, appear to degenerate and have no ossified representative in the adult syncranium. The cranial development for M. sanctaefilomenae is compared to those of other characiforms. © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

Vasundhara Devi J.,Illinois Wesleyan University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2012

In this paper the variational Lyapunov method is developed for Caputo fractional differential equations. Further, the comparison theorems are proved with a relaxed hypothesis: the assumption of local Holder continuity is relaxed to Cp continuity of the functions involved in the Riemann-Liouville fractional differential equations. In this process the Grünwald-Letnikov derivative is used to define Dini derivatives. Also, a relation between ordinary and fractional differential equations is given. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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