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Normal, IL, United States

Illinois State University , founded in 1857, is the oldest public university in Illinois, United States; it is located in the town of Normal. ISU grants a variety of doctoral degrees, emphasizes teaching, and encourages faculty to conduct additional research. ISU is also recognized as one of the top ten largest producers of teachers in the US according to the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education. The ISU athletic teams are members of the Missouri Valley Conference and the Missouri Valley Football Conference and are known as the "Redbirds," in reference to the state bird, the cardinal. Wikipedia.


Gershman S.N.,Illinois State University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2012

Nuptial food gifts function to enhance male fertilization success, but their consumption is not always beneficial to females. In decorated crickets, the spermatophore transferred at mating includes a gelatinous mass, the spermatophylax, which is consumed by females after mating. However, females often discard spermatophylaxes shortly after mating, whereupon they terminate sperm transfer. We hypothesized that females discard gifts based on their assessment of the gift itself, and specifically the composition of free amino acids. We tested this hypothesis by comparing spermatophylaxes discarded by females after mating with those that were destined to be fully consumed, and employed multivariate selection analysis to quantify the strength and form of multivariate sexual selection operating on the free amino acid composition of gifts. The analysis yielded a saddle-shaped fitness surface with two local peaks. Different amino acid profiles appear to elicit continued feeding on the spermatophylax either because they offer the same level of gustatory appeal, or because they differentially affect both the gustatory appeal and texture of the spermatophylax. We conclude that the gustatory response of females to males' nuptial food gifts represents an important avenue of post-copulatory mate choice, imposing significant sexual selection on the free amino acid composition of the spermatophylax. Source


This article celebrates the 50th anniversary of the introduction of John L. Holland's (1959) theory of vocational personalities and work environments by describing the theory's development and evolution, its instrumentation, and its current status. Hallmarks of Holland's theory are its empirical testability and its user-friendliness. By constructing measures for operationalizing the theory's constructs, Holland and his colleagues helped ensure that the theory could be implemented in practice on a widespread basis. Empirical data offer considerable support for the existence of Holland's RIASEC types and their ordering among persons and environments. Although Holland's congruence hypotheses have received empirical support, congruence appears to have modest predictive power. Mixed support exists for Holland's hypotheses involving the secondary constructs of differentiation, consistency, and vocational identity. Evidence of the continued impact of Holland's theory on the field of counseling psychology, particularly in the area of interest assessment, can be seen from its frequent implementation in practice and its use by scholars. Ideas for future research and practice using Holland's theory are suggested. © 2010 American Psychological Association. Source


Steiger S.,Illinois State University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2011

Although chemical communication is the most widespread form of communication, its evolution and diversity are not well understood. By integrating studies of a wide range of terrestrial plants and animals, we show that many chemicals are emitted, which can unintentionally provide information (cues) and, therefore, act as direct precursors for the evolution of intentional communication (signals). Depending on the content, design and the original function of the cue, there are predictable ways that selection can enhance the communicative function of chemicals. We review recent progress on how efficacy-based selection by receivers leads to distinct evolutionary trajectories of chemical communication. Because the original function of a cue may channel but also constrain the evolution of functional communication, we show that a broad perspective on multiple selective pressures acting upon chemicals provides important insights into the origin and dynamic evolution of chemical information transfer. Finally, we argue that integrating chemical ecology into communication theory may significantly enhance our understanding of the evolution, the design and the content of signals in general. Source


Payne J.E.,Illinois State University
Applied Energy | Year: 2010

This study discusses the various hypotheses associated with the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth along with a survey of the empirical literature. The survey focuses on country coverage, variables selected and model specification, econometric approaches, various methodological issues, and empirical results. The results for the specific countries surveyed show that 31.15% supported the neutrality hypothesis; 27.87% the conservation hypothesis; 22.95% the growth hypothesis; and 18.03% the feedback hypothesis. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


This paper examines the new forms of regulation and resistance accompanying the expanding extractive frontier in Andean Peru. It does so through an analysis of a process of community mobilization at the Pierina gold mine in the region of Ancash that was aimed at transforming the conditions under which area residents labored at the mine. The article documents the complex ways in which the emergence of neoliberalized forms of resource governance has affected the terrain of mining-related sociopolitical struggle at Pierina, both allowing the mining firm to consolidate authority in the arena of mine-community relations, while also establishing certain conditions for residents to pursue their interests collectively. An analysis of the Pierina case suggests that efforts to forge more just and equitable political economies of mineral development must not only challenge the neoliberalization of resource governance, but also confront the underlying socio-ecological contradictions of contemporary capitalist resource development. © 2012 The Author. Antipode. © 2012 Antipode Foundation Ltd. Source

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