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Champaign, IL, United States

Finley R.J.,Illinois State Geological Survey
Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The Illinois Basin-Decatur Project (IBDP) is being carried out by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), led by the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) at the University of Illinois. The MGSC is one of the US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as a mitigation tool to address global climate change. The MGSC team includes the ISGS, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) of Decatur, Illinois. ADM operates an agricultural product processing facility in Decatur, Illinois, at which 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) derived from the production of fuel ethanol is captured and injected into a deep saline reservoir, the Mount Simon Sandstone, at a rate of 1000 tonnes/day. Injection began in November 2011 and is scheduled for completion in November 2014. The site was selected after extensive geological screening work throughout the Illinois Basin. The lower third of the Mount Simon Sandstone contains bedload fluvial deposits with excellent reservoir quality; capacity, injectivity, and containment are meeting expectations. The IBDP incorporates extensive subsurface and surface monitoring, which integrates the injection well, a deep monitoring well, a geophysical monitoring well, and numerous shallow groundwater wells and surface monitoring sites. Multiple disciplines in geology, reservoir engineering, geophysics, outreach and education, reservoir modeling, hydrology, geochemistry, basin analysis, seismology, data management, chemical engineering, facilities construction, and field operations have combined to make IBDP a viable project. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Grimley D.A.,Illinois State Geological Survey | Oches E.A.,Bentley University
Quaternary Geochronology | Year: 2015

Amino acid racemization (AAR) values measured in gastropod shells are demonstrated to be an important aid for correlations and chronology of fossiliferous loessal, lacustrine, and alluvial Pleistocene units in Illinois, central USA. Aspartic acid (Asx) and Glutamic acid (Glx) D/L values were analyzed on a total of 167 Succinea, Hendersonia, and Pomatiopsis shells from 9 geologic units, with clear stratigraphic relationships, at a total of 18 localities in central and southern Illinois. AAR data from Hendersonia and Succinea are less variable and more normally distributed than Pomatiopsis data, but the latter are locally useful for units lacking preferred genera. Based on analysis of variance tests, Asx- and Glx-D/L data can confidently distinguish among Wisconsin Episode (MIS 2-3), Illinois Episode (MIS 6), late pre-Illinois Episode (MIS 8-14), and early pre-Illinois Episode (MIS 20) deposits. Last glacial Peoria Silt (MIS 2) and Roxana Silt (MIS 3), have mean Asx-D/L values of 0.34-0.37 and 0.42-0.43, respectively, considering all genera. The Illinois Episode Petersburg Silt (150 ka) has Asx-D/L (x: 0.50-0.56) and Glx- D/L (x: 0.17-0.22) ratios that are statistically distinctive from other units. Three late pre-Illinois Episode units (Harkness Silt Member, Belgium Member, and Banner silt units) have similar Asx D/L values (x: 0.63-0.71) and, along with stratigraphic context, confirm extensive middle Pleistocene glaciations in the region. Using parabolic kinetic age models, depositional ages of 550-250 ka (MIS 14-8) are implied for these units, with a favored correlation with MIS 12 (450 ka), a time of especially high global ice volume. The Canteen member, a preglacial alluvium-colluvium below the Harkness Silt, is statistically indistinguishable from other pre-Illinois Episode units with AAR data, but was likely deposited during 660-480 ka (MIS 16 or 14), based on parabolic age estimates. The paleomagnetically reversed County Line silt (780-830 ka: MIS 20), with the highest mean AAR values, is the oldest known gastropod-bearing Pleistocene unit in Illinois. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Greenberg S.E.,Illinois State Geological Survey
Energy Procedia | Year: 2013

Around the world, research and validation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is taking place through demonstration projects. Valuable experience in developing, implementing, and operating CCS projects is being gained. Knowledge shared from operating CCS projects is critical to understanding the technological aspects and non-technical implications of CCS. Utilizing experiences gained furthers best practices and facilitates commercial implementation of CCS by building capacity among scientists, project developers, and operators. The Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), in collaboration with the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), has created an international CCS capacity building and knowledge-sharing program in Champaign, Illinois USA. The Sequestration Training and Education Program (STEP) is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to provide knowledge sharing and capacity building opportunities at all levels. STEP works to stimulate economic recovery and development by training personnel for work in conjunction with commercial CCS projects. Additionally, STEP works with national and international professional organizations and regional experts to leverage existing training opportunities and provide stand-alone training. STEP seeks to build capacity for CCS technology and knowledge sharing through quality educational experiences including regional, national and international exchange programs. STEP programs include knowledge sharing opportunities designed to further the understanding of the technical, political and societal concepts associated with CCS. STEP educational programs are built on the solid foundation of research being conducted through the ISGS and MGSC in the Midwestern region of the United States. Programs are based on providing hands-on learning experiences and information sharing on CCS, through project level experience gained through the MGSC Illinois Basin - Decatur Project (Decatur, Illinois USA), Illinois Industrial CCS Project (Decatur, Illinois USA), Taylorville Energy Center (Taylorville, Illinois USA), and others. This unique research collaboration allows for the creation of knowledge sharing and capacity building programs that draw on CCS experts with pilot-scale and demonstrationscale, project-specific experience to develop conferences, short courses, brown-bag lectures and workshops to meet diverse training needs. A key program focus for STEP is to ensure that the multiple disciplines required for successful CCS operations have an appreciation for the contributions required from experts in multiple facets of permit development, engineering, geology, geophysics, hydrology, drilling and completion, surface facilities development to ensure a successful project. The development of the STEP center, capacity building and knowledge sharing experiences, and collaborations will be discussed. Source

Dai S.,China University of Mining and Technology | Ren D.,China University of Mining and Technology | Chou C.-L.,Illinois State Geological Survey | Finkelman R.B.,University of Texas at Dallas | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2012

China will continue to be one of the largest coal producers and users in the world. The high volume of coal use in China has focused attention on the amounts of toxic trace elements released from coal combustions and also the valuable trace elements extracted or potentially utilized from coal ash.Compared to world coals, Chinese coals have normal background values for most trace elements, with the exception of higher Li (31.8. μg/g), Zr (89.5. μg/g), Nb (9.44. μg/g), Ta (0.62. μg/g), Hf (3.71. μg/g), Th (5.84. μg/g), and rare earth elements (∑. La-Lu. +. Y, 136. μg/g). This is not only due to the higher ash yields of Chinese coals but also to alkali volcanic ashes found in some southwestern coals. The background values of toxic elements of Hg (0.163. μg/g), As (3.79. μg/g), and F (130. μg/g) in Chinese coals are comparable to coals from most other countries.The genetic types for trace-element enrichment of Chinese coals include source-rock- controlled, marine-environment-controlled, hydrothermal-fluid-controlled (including magmatic-, low-temperature-hydrothermal-fluid-, and submarine-exhalation-controlled subtypes), groundwater-controlled, and volcanic-ash-controlled. The background values of trace elements were dominated by sediment source regions. Low-temperature hydrothermal fluid was one of the major factors for the local enrichment of trace elements in southwestern China.Serious human health problems caused by indoor combustion of coal in China include endemic fluorosis, arsenosis, selenosis, and lung cancer. Endemic fluorosis, mainly occurring in western Guizhou, was mostly attributed to the high fluorine in clay that was used as a briquette binder for fine coals, in addition to a small quantity of fluorine from coal. Fluorine in the coal from endemic-fluorosis areas of western Guizhou is within the usual range found in China and the world. Endemic arsenosis in southwestern Guizhou is attributed to indoor combustion of high-As coal. Endemic selenosis in Enshi of Hubei was due to high Se in carbonaceous siliceous rocks and carbonaceous shales. Fine particles of quartz, released into air during coal combustion, are hypothesized as a possible cause for the lung cancer epidemic in Xuanwei, Yunnan, China.Valuable elements, including Ge, Ga, U, REE (rare earth element), Nb, Zr, and Re are concentrated to levels comparable to conventional economic deposits in several coals or coal-bearing strata in China. The Ge deposits at Lincang, Yunnan province and Wulantuga, Inner Mongolia have been exploited and industrially utilized. The enrichment of Ge in the two deposits was caused by hydrothermal fluids associated with adjacent granitoids. The Ga (Al) ore deposit in the Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, was derived from the neighboring weathered and oxidized bauxite of the Benxi Formation (Pennsylvanian). The Nb(Ta)-Zr(Hf)-REE-Ga deposits in the Late Permian coal-bearing strata of eastern Yunnan and Chongqing of southwestern China were attributed to ashes of the alkali volcanic eruptions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

O'Brien S.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago | O'Brien S.L.,Argonne National Laboratory | Jastrow J.D.,Argonne National Laboratory | Grimley D.A.,Illinois State Geological Survey | Gonzalez-Meler M.A.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Global Change Biology | Year: 2010

Revitalization of degraded landscapes may provide sinks for rising atmospheric CO2, especially in reconstructed prairies where substantial belowground productivity is coupled with large soil organic carbon (SOC) deficits after many decades of cultivation. The restoration process also provides opportunities to study the often-elusive factors that regulate soil processes. Although the precise mechanisms that govern the rate of SOC accrual are unclear, factors such as soil moisture or vegetation type may influence the net accrual rate by affecting the balance between organic matter inputs and decomposition. A resampling approach was used to assess the control that soil moisture and plant community type each exert on SOC and total nitrogen (TN) accumulation in restored grasslands. Five plots that varied in drainage were sampled at least four times over two decades to assess SOC, TN, and C4- and C3-derived C. We found that higher long-term soil moisture, characterized by low soil magnetic susceptibility, promoted SOC and TN accrual, with twice the SOC and three times the TN gain in seasonally saturated prairies compared with mesic prairies. Vegetation also influenced SOC and TN recovery, as accrual was faster in the prairies compared with C3-only grassland, and C4-derived C accrual correlated strongly to total SOC accrual but C3-C did not. High SOC accumulation at the surface (0-10 cm) combined with losses at depth (10-20 cm) suggested these soils are recovering the highly stratified profiles typical of remnant prairies. Our results suggest that local hydrology and plant community are critical drivers of SOC and TN recovery in restored grasslands. Because these factors and the way they affect SOC are susceptible to modification by climate change, we contend that predictions of the C-sequestration performance of restored grasslands must account for projected climatic changes on both soil moisture and the seasonal productivity of C4 and C3 plants. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

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