Jacksonville, IL, United States
Jacksonville, IL, United States

Illinois College is a private, liberal arts college, affiliated with the United Church of Christ and the Presbyterian Church , and located in Jacksonville, Illinois. It was the second college founded in Illinois, but the first to grant a degree . It was founded in 1829 by the Illinois Band, students from Yale University who traveled westward to found new colleges. It briefly served as the state's first medical school from 1843–1848, and became co-educational in 1903. Wikipedia.

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Daugirdas J.T.,Illinois College
Kidney International | Year: 2013

Dialysis time is increasingly being appreciated as an important measure of dialysis adequacy. Increased dialysis time leads to better control of volume excess, to reduced occurrence of intradialytic hypotension, and to better control of serum phosphorus. Nevertheless, the amount of benefit obtainable by moderate increases in dialysis time in patients following a three-times-per-week schedule has not been well established, and the analysis is confounded by associations between prescribed and/or delivered dialysis time and factors related to patient mortality. © 2012 International Society of Nephrology.

Wang K.,Illinois College
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2014

Apoptosis is a prominent feature of liver diseases. Causative factors such as alcohol, viruses, toxic bile acids, fatty acids, drugs, and immune response, can induce apoptotic cell death via membrane receptors and intracellular stress. Apoptotic signaling network, including membrane death receptor-mediated cascade, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, lysosomal permeabilization, and mitochondrial dysfunction, is intermixed each other, but one mechanism may dominate at a particular stage. Mechanisms of hepatic apoptosis are complicated by multiple signaling pathways. The progression of liver disease is affected by the balance between apoptotic and antiapoptotic capabilities. Therapeutic options of liver injury are impacted by the clear understanding toward mechanisms of hepatic apoptosis. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Wang K.,Illinois College
Cell Cycle | Year: 2015

Apoptosis is a primary characteristic in the pathogenesis of liver disease. Hepatic apoptosis is regulated by autophagic activity. However, mechanisms mediating their interaction remain to be determined. Basal level of autophagy ensures the physiological turnover of old and damaged organelles. Autophagy also is an adaptive response under stressful conditions. Autophagy can control cell fate through different cross-talk signals. A complex interplay between hepatic autophagy and apoptosis determines the degree of hepatic apoptosis and the progression of liver disease as demonstrated by pre-clinical models and clinical trials. This review summarizes recent advances on roles of autophagy that plays in pathophysiology of liver. The autophagic pathway can be a novel therapeutic target for liver disease. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Chen Z.W.,Illinois College
Cellular and Molecular Immunology | Year: 2013

Vγ2Vδ2 T (also known as Vγ9Vδ2 T) cells exist only in primates, and in humans represent a major γδ T-cell sub-population in the total population of circulating γδ T cells. Results from recent studies suggest that while (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) phosphoantigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other microbes activates and expands primate Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, the Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizes and binds to HMBPP on antigen-presenting cells (APC). In response to HMBPP stimulus, Vγ2Vδ2 TCRs array to form signaling-related nanoclusters or nanodomains during the activation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Primary infections with HMBPP-producing pathogens drive the evolution of multieffector functional responses in Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, although Vγ2Vδ2 T cells display different patterns of responses during the acute and chronic phases of Mtb infection and in other infections. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in primary Mtb infection can exhibit a broader TCR repertoire and a greater clonal response than previously assumed, with different distribution patterns of Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell clones in lymphoid and non-lymphoid compartments. Emerging in vivo data suggest that HMBPP activation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells appears to impact other immune cells during infection. © 2013 CSI and USTC.

Weinberg G.L.,Illinois College
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine | Year: 2010

Severe, systemic local anesthetic toxicity is arguably the most feared complication of regional anesthesia. A combination of old and new therapies is recommended to reduce the morbidity and mortality of symptomatic local anesthetic overdose. Prevention remains the criterion standard for improving patient safety during regional anesthesia. However, when local anesthetic toxicity occurs, considering the diagnosis is the doctor's first step to successful treatment. Preparing a plan of action ahead of time and having the necessary tools readily at hand will likewise contribute to saving the patient's life. Airway management, oxygenation, ventilation, and good basic life support are the sine qua non of successful resuscitation. Seizure suppression is key, and we recommend communicating with a perfusion team for possible cardiopulmonary bypass. Lipid infusion should be considered early, and the treating physician should be familiar with the method. We also recommend avoiding vasopressin and using epinephrine only in small doses. Vigilance, preparedness, and quick action will improve outcomes of this dreaded complication. Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) derived from intravascular cells is required for thrombus formation. However, it remains unclear whether platelet PDI contributes to the process. Using platelet-specific PDI-deficient mice, we demonstrate that PDI-null platelets have defects in aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by thrombin, collagen, and adenosine diphosphate. Such defects were rescued by wild-type but not mutant PDI, indicating that the isomerase activity of platelet surface PDI is critical for the regulatory effect. PDI-deficient platelets expressed increased levels of intracellular ER protein 57 (ERp57) and ERp72. Platelet PDI regulated αIIbβ3 integrin activation but not P-selectin exposure, Ca(2+) mobilization, β3-talin1 interaction, or platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. Inhibition of ERp57 further diminished αIIbβ3 integrin activation and aggregation of activated PDI-deficient platelets, suggesting distinct roles of PDI and ERp57 in platelet functions. We found that platelet PDI is important for thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under shear. Intravital microscopy demonstrates that platelet PDI is important for platelet accumulation but not initial adhesion and fibrin generation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. Tail bleeding time in platelet-specific PDI-deficient mice were not significantly increased. Our results provide important evidence that platelet PDI is essential for thrombus formation but not for hemostasis in mice.

β2 integrins play a crucial role during neutrophil recruitment into the site of vascular inflammation. However, it remains unknown how ligand-binding activity of the integrin is regulated. Using fluorescence intravital microscopy in mice generated by crossing protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) floxed mice with lysozyme-Cre transgenic mice, we demonstrate that neutrophil PDI is required for neutrophil adhesion and crawling during tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular inflammation in vivo. Rescue experiments show that the isomerase activity of extracellular PDI is critical for its regulatory effect on neutrophil recruitment. Studies with blocking anti-PDI antibodies and αLβ2 or αMβ2 null mice suggest that extracellular PDI regulates αMβ2 integrin-mediated adhesive function of neutrophils during vascular inflammation. Consistently, we show that neutrophil surface PDI is important for αMβ2 integrin-mediated adhesion of human neutrophils under shear and static conditions and for binding of soluble fibrinogen to activated αMβ2 integrin. Confocal microscopy and biochemical studies reveal that neutrophil surface PDI interacts with αMβ2 integrin in lipid rafts of stimulated neutrophils and regulates αMβ2 integrin clustering, presumably by changing the redox state of the integrin. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that extracellular PDI could be a novel therapeutic target for preventing and treating inappropriate neutrophil sequestration.

Gorelick P.B.,Illinois College
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2010

Inflammation may be an important mechanism underlying dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly. Inflammation has been implicated in the neuropathological cascade leading to the development of Alzheimer's disease and other common forms of dementia in later life. These observations have led to observational epidemiological study to define the association of systemic and brain inflammatory markers on cognitive impairment and dementia. Furthermore, clinical trials have been carried out to better elucidate the possible role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the prevention or slowing of progression of Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we discuss the observational epidemiological and clinical trial evidence of the role of inflammation on the occurrence and prevention of dementia or cognitive decline. NSAIDs hold promise to prevent dementia if given in an appropriate time window during the induction phase of dementia and to subjects with apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 alleles. Also, immunotherapy may prove beneficial. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

Kenter A.L.,Illinois College
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2012

Activation induced deaminase (AID) is globally targeted to immunoglobulin loci, preferentially focused to switch (S) regions and variable (V) regions, and prone to attack hotspot motifs. Nevertheless, AID deamination is not exclusive to Ig loci and the rules regulating AID targeting remain unclear. Transcription is critically required for class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Here, I consider the unique features associated with S region transcription leading to RNA polymerase II pausing, that in turn promote the introduction of activating chromatin remodeling, histone modifications and recruitment of AID to targeted S regions. These findings allow for a better understanding of the interplay between transcription, AID targeting and mistargeting to Ig and non-Ig loci. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 604.67K | Year: 2015

There is an established need in the United States to increase the number of American scientists in the workforce. This NSF Scholarships in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (S-STEM) project will improve the completion rates for math, computer science, biology, chemistry, physics, engineering and earth science transfer students from Southwestern Illinois College. Approximately, 50 scholars will participate in a two-year project that includes (a) targeted recruitment, (b) intensive mentoring and advising, (c) specialized cohort building activities and (d) exposure to career and transfer opportunities. As a new model for thorough, results-driven student support and mentoring the project will act as a template for future retention projects throughout the institution.

The approach for this project, which is grounded in relevant theory and research, recognizes that multiple factors contribute to low STEM enrollment and completion rates among financially needy students. These factors will be addressed through a curriculum that focuses on self-efficacy in STEM, identification with and opinion of STEM fields, and development of metacognitive skills in STEM subjects as well as structure academic and social supports. The program will be evaluated by an education researcher using a logic model that captures the programs theory of change, outputs and activities, midterm outcomes, and long term outcomes. Formative evaluation will address student progress, use of support services, and satisfaction (journaling). Student attitudes will also be assessed using a standardized instrument (STEM-CIS). Summative evaluation will be performed using a logic model (inputs, outputs, mid-term outcomes, and end outcomes). Internal dissemination of the results of evaluation will be done through the institutions annual newsletter. Results will also be reported at meeting of the National Science Teachers Association and eventually submitted to the Journal of College Science Teaching.

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