Illinois College is a private, liberal arts college, affiliated with the United Church of Christ and the Presbyterian Church , and located in Jacksonville, Illinois. It was the second college founded in Illinois, but the first to grant a degree . It was founded in 1829 by the Illinois Band, students from Yale University who traveled westward to found new colleges. It briefly served as the state's first medical school from 1843–1848, and became co-educational in 1903. Wikipedia.
Wang K.,Illinois College
Cellular Signalling | Year: 2015
Apoptosis is a prominent characteristic in the pathogenesis of liver disease. The mechanism of hepatic apoptosis is not well understood. Hepatic apoptosis alters relative levels of nuclear factors such as Foxa2, NF-κB, C/EBPβ, and p53. Regulation of nuclear factors modulates the degree of hepatic apoptosis and the progression of liver disease. Nuclear factors have distinctive mechanisms to mediate hepatic apoptosis. The modification of nuclear factors is a novel therapeutic strategy for liver disease as demonstrated by pre-clinical models and clinical trials. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Wang K.,Illinois College
Cell Cycle | Year: 2015
Apoptosis is a primary characteristic in the pathogenesis of liver disease. Hepatic apoptosis is regulated by autophagic activity. However, mechanisms mediating their interaction remain to be determined. Basal level of autophagy ensures the physiological turnover of old and damaged organelles. Autophagy also is an adaptive response under stressful conditions. Autophagy can control cell fate through different cross-talk signals. A complex interplay between hepatic autophagy and apoptosis determines the degree of hepatic apoptosis and the progression of liver disease as demonstrated by pre-clinical models and clinical trials. This review summarizes recent advances on roles of autophagy that plays in pathophysiology of liver. The autophagic pathway can be a novel therapeutic target for liver disease. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Kim K.,Illinois College
Blood | Year: 2013
Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) derived from intravascular cells is required for thrombus formation. However, it remains unclear whether platelet PDI contributes to the process. Using platelet-specific PDI-deficient mice, we demonstrate that PDI-null platelets have defects in aggregation and adenosine triphosphate secretion induced by thrombin, collagen, and adenosine diphosphate. Such defects were rescued by wild-type but not mutant PDI, indicating that the isomerase activity of platelet surface PDI is critical for the regulatory effect. PDI-deficient platelets expressed increased levels of intracellular ER protein 57 (ERp57) and ERp72. Platelet PDI regulated αIIbβ3 integrin activation but not P-selectin exposure, Ca(2+) mobilization, β3-talin1 interaction, or platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. Inhibition of ERp57 further diminished αIIbβ3 integrin activation and aggregation of activated PDI-deficient platelets, suggesting distinct roles of PDI and ERp57 in platelet functions. We found that platelet PDI is important for thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces under shear. Intravital microscopy demonstrates that platelet PDI is important for platelet accumulation but not initial adhesion and fibrin generation following laser-induced arteriolar injury. Tail bleeding time in platelet-specific PDI-deficient mice were not significantly increased. Our results provide important evidence that platelet PDI is essential for thrombus formation but not for hemostasis in mice.
Hahm E.,Illinois College
Blood | Year: 2013
β2 integrins play a crucial role during neutrophil recruitment into the site of vascular inflammation. However, it remains unknown how ligand-binding activity of the integrin is regulated. Using fluorescence intravital microscopy in mice generated by crossing protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) floxed mice with lysozyme-Cre transgenic mice, we demonstrate that neutrophil PDI is required for neutrophil adhesion and crawling during tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular inflammation in vivo. Rescue experiments show that the isomerase activity of extracellular PDI is critical for its regulatory effect on neutrophil recruitment. Studies with blocking anti-PDI antibodies and αLβ2 or αMβ2 null mice suggest that extracellular PDI regulates αMβ2 integrin-mediated adhesive function of neutrophils during vascular inflammation. Consistently, we show that neutrophil surface PDI is important for αMβ2 integrin-mediated adhesion of human neutrophils under shear and static conditions and for binding of soluble fibrinogen to activated αMβ2 integrin. Confocal microscopy and biochemical studies reveal that neutrophil surface PDI interacts with αMβ2 integrin in lipid rafts of stimulated neutrophils and regulates αMβ2 integrin clustering, presumably by changing the redox state of the integrin. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that extracellular PDI could be a novel therapeutic target for preventing and treating inappropriate neutrophil sequestration.
Kenter A.L.,Illinois College
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2012
Activation induced deaminase (AID) is globally targeted to immunoglobulin loci, preferentially focused to switch (S) regions and variable (V) regions, and prone to attack hotspot motifs. Nevertheless, AID deamination is not exclusive to Ig loci and the rules regulating AID targeting remain unclear. Transcription is critically required for class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Here, I consider the unique features associated with S region transcription leading to RNA polymerase II pausing, that in turn promote the introduction of activating chromatin remodeling, histone modifications and recruitment of AID to targeted S regions. These findings allow for a better understanding of the interplay between transcription, AID targeting and mistargeting to Ig and non-Ig loci. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.