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Szary M.L.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Chugh Y.P.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Hirschi J.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics | Year: 2011

Noise in an underground coal mine has dominant components generated mainly from 3 sources: (a) continuous mining machines, (b) roof bolters, and (c) cars/vehicles used to transport personnel and/or coal. Each of these 3 noise sources also has a number of well-defined sub-sources with their own noise characteristics. Sound level meters were used to collect noise data in the form of instantaneous readings and also to check calibration of other sound measuring instruments. The most useful information was obtained from a spectrum analysis of continuous digital recordings of noise over time. This paper discusses the variability or dynamics of generated noise in both frequency and time domains in relation to several independent variables related to coal extraction and transportation processes.

Zhang B.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Yang F.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Akbari H.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Mohanty M.K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization | Year: 2011

A single-deck full-scale Stack Sizer in conjunction with a Falcon Concentrator having a feed handling capacity up to 5 tph was used to demonstrate a new fine coal cleaning circuit especially for high-sulfur coal in this study. The experimental program was conducted to treat a slip stream from the feed to the raw coal cyclones operating in a coal preparation plant in the Midwestern United States. High-efficiency size separation achieved is described by an imperfection value of 0.21 and ultrafine bypass of 4.72% at a d50c of 77 micron. A reasonably low 1.74 specific gravity of separation was achieved by the Falcon Concentrator along with a probable error (Ep) value of 0.13 for cleaning nominally 1-mm × 75-micron coal. For a hypothetical fine coal cleaning circuit treating 100 tph of raw coal, the estimated total cost per ton of feed coal for the traditional fine coal cleaning circuit and the proposed new circuit are $4.93 and $5.89, respectively. However, the authors believe that the significant reduction in sulfur penalty due to better pyrite rejection achievable with the proposed circuit may offset the higher cost of cleaning high-sulfur coal. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Zhang B.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Akbari H.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Yang F.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Mohanty M.K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Hirschi J.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization | Year: 2011

The main goal of the present study was not only to deshale (remove pure rock) raw coal extracted from Illinois mines but also to assess the maximum ash separation efficiency and sulfur rejection achievable using the FGX Dry Separator for cleaning raw coals of varying cleaning characteristics. A Model FGX-1 Dry Separator with feed throughput capacity of 10 tph was extensively tested at the Illinois Coal Development Park using multiple coal samples having distinctly different cleaning characteristics. Statistically designed experimental programs were conducted to indentify critical process variables and to optimize FGX Dry Separator performance by systematic adjustments of critical process variable parameters. The coal-cleaning performance of the FGX Dry Separator was evaluated for the particle size range of 4.75-63.5 mm in most cases, although FGX Dry Separator feed consisted of nominal 7minus;63.5 mm run-of-mine coals. Deck vibration frequency, longitudinal deck angle, feeder frequency, and baffle plate height were identified as critical process variables for the FGX Dry Separator. The best cleaning performance obtained from the FGX Dry Separator was described by specific gravity of separation (SG50) and probable error (Ep) values of 1.98 and 0.17, respectively. For a relatively easy-to-clean coal (having a Cleaning Index of 0.72), only about 0.42% of the clean coal (i.e., 1.6 float fraction) present in the feed was lost to the tailings stream. For a relatively difficult-to-clean coal (having a Cleaning Index of 0.53), about 0.98% of the clean coal present in the feed was lost to the tailings stream. The positive impact of having fine materials in the FGX feed stream was also noted in this study. A modified log-logistic partition model was developed using experimental data reported in literature and validated using new experimental data generated in this study. The results showed that this model could be effectively used to predict the FGX Dry Separator coal-cleaning performance. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Gurley H.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Chugh Y.P.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Hirschi J.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute
28th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2011, PCC 2011 | Year: 2011

The SIUC engineered wooden crib known as the "ATLAS" crib was developed as an improved supplemental standing roof support for underground mining applications. These cribs are lighter in weight, offer lower resistance to airflow, can be installed more efficiently, and have higher stiffness than the conventional cribs. Three ATLAS crib designs, ATLAS 100, 200, and 300 series, were developed with different load carrying capacities and stiffness characteristics. Over the last three years, ATLAS 100 and 300 cribs were tested as a supplemental roof support in room-and-pillar and longwall mining operations in cooperation with National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Both ATLAS 100 and ATLAS 300 cribs have demonstrated good characteristics for longwall entry and room-and-pillar supplemental standing roof supports in limited field studies during commercial use. This paper summarizes different field demonstrations and the performance of the SIUC developed innovative support systems.

Zhuang Y.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | Martin C.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | Pavlish J.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | Botha F.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute
Fuel | Year: 2011

Parametric experiments were carried out to study the interactions of mercury, SO 3, and injected activated carbon (AC) in a coal flue gas stream. The levels of SO 3 vapor in flue gas were altered by individually varying flue gas temperature, moisture, or sodium fume injection in the flue gas. Meanwhile, mercury emissions with AC injection (ACI) upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) were evaluated under varied SO 3 concentrations. SO 3 measurements using a condensation method indicated that low temperature, high moisture content, and sodium fume injection in flue gas shifted SO 3 partitioning from the vapor to particulate phase, subsequently improving mercury capture with ACI. 0.08 g/m 3 of DARCO ® Hg-LH injection only provided approximately 20% mercury reduction across the ESP in a bituminous coal flue gas containing 28 ppm SO 3, but mercury capture was increased to 80% when the SO 3 vapor concentration was lowered less than 2 ppm. Experimental data clearly demonstrate that elevated SO 3 vapor is the key factor that impedes mercury adsorption on AC, mainly because SO 3 directly competes against mercury for the same binding sites and overwhelmingly consumes all binding sites. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chugh Y.P.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Abbasi B.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Hirschi J.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute
28th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2011, PCC 2011 | Year: 2011

This research develops an improved scientific understanding of stress distribution and instability around a 4-way coal mine intersection with and without primary and secondary supports. Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed with estimated Hoek-Brown failure criterion parameters for different lithologies associated with the coal seam. Entry width and horizontal stress have a major influence on intersection stability. Pillar ribs across an intersection fail first and lead to progressive failure of immediate roof and floor layers. The failure of roof layers extends about 1.8m, representative of field observations. Coal ribs mostly fail due to tensile stress, while roof and floor strata fail due to shear stresses. Rib corners fail due to a combination of shear and tensile stresses. Primary roof bolt supports significantly improve stability, but are not adequate. A 5-bolt pattern around intersection corners, with 2.4 m long vertical, #7 rebar, pre-tensioned bolts appears best as secondary support. Sequence of mining seems can have a positive effect on mine intersection stability. The "Star" pattern of bolting typically used does not have a major effect on intersection stability.

Mondal K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Hartman K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Dasgupta D.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute | Trifon G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Dasari M.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology | Year: 2014

1-D nanostructures are deemed to be important building blocks for future optical and optoelectronic nanodevices. We have used electrospinning methods to synthesize nanofibers and freestanding, non-woven nanofibers membranes of single phase yttrium titanate and ErxY2−xTi2O7 (x = 0–12 %) with diameters less than 150 nm and have characterized the physical, thermal and optical properties. We have demonstrated that such fibers can be synthesized at a relatively low cost and high production volume with a narrow diameter range. No clear phases are observed up to a calcination temperature of 700 °C and pyrochlore phase appear at 725 °C which are also confirmed by the TGA. Single pyrochlore phase is observed at temperatures greater than 900 °C. No other oxide phases are present. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Dasgupta D.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute | Wiltowski T.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Fuel | Year: 2011

This paper presents the results on the research in the development of a Fe-based catalyst with Co as a co-catalyst, and Ru and ZnO as promoters. The catalytic performance of these materials for FT synthesis was investigated in the gas phase employing a fixed bed reactor system. The Fe-Zn-K/γ-Al 2O3 catalyst performance was used as the benchmark. The data show that by varying the process conditions (T, P, flow rate), it is possible to achieve a narrow distribution of the liquid products. The effect of co-catalysts and promoters such as K and Zn are also presented. The results from a series of Fe4Co1Zn0.04 based catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, in which the different amounts of Ru are incorporated showed that the addition of Ru suppressed the CH4 formation at the cost of increasing the CO2 selectivity. The newly designed catalysts showed significantly high activity towards CO conversion (>70%), along with low selectivity towards CO2 (5-15%) and methane (ND - 3%). It is also shown that the support material plays a role in the selectivities obtained. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Szary M.L.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Weber P.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Hirschi J.C.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute
41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012 | Year: 2012

The Continuous Miner Machine (CMM) is one of the major sources of noise generated in an underground coal mine. Other contributors to noise are the Roof Bolters and Cars/Vehicles used to transport coal and/or personnel. Each of these main noise sources has a number of well-defined sub-sources. The CMM noise is comprised of noise generated mainly by the coal cutting drum, the wet scrubber for dust control, and the coal transport conveyor. Noise surveys of CMM sub-sources have revealed that noise generated by the hydraulic power supply with attached components was lower than generated by any other electro-mechanical sub-system in the same range of installed power, such as electrical motors coupled with a mechanical transmission. This paper discusses generated noise levels and advantages and disadvantages of the use of hydraulic components in comparison with their electro-mechanical equivalents.

Qin J.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Sun P.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Mohanty M.K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Hirschi J.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute
31st Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference: Coal - Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, PCC 2014 | Year: 2014

Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) continues to be one of the most prevalent occupational problems in the United States. The mining industry has higher prevalence of hazardous noise exposure than other major industrial sectors. For coal miners, 90% have been found to have hearing impairment by age 50. Many workplaces in coal mining industry are subjected to the high level complex noise. The current noise measurement guidelines and devices (e.g., conventional sound level meters) are developed based on the equal energy hypothesis (EEH), which states that loss of hearing by exposure to noise is proportional to the total acoustic energy of the exposure. However, the EEH does not accurately rate the complex noise which was often experienced in coal mining fields. Therefore, conventional sound level meters may not be able to accurately assess the complex noise in coal mining fields. In this study, a new waveform profile based noise measurement system has been developed for the evaluation of high level complex noise in coal mining fields. Pilot field measurements have been conducted in a wet coal preparation plant using the developed system. In addition, a wavelet transform based signal analysis algorithm has been modified and implemented to characterize the complex noise measured in the field. The preliminary results showed that the system successfully detected and recorded waveforms of complex noise signals in the coal mining field. The modified algorithm can decomposed the complex noise signals and display the detailed features in the time-frequency joint domain. The key parameters of complex noise can be determined, and the hazardous complex noise in coal mining fields can be identified.

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