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Dasgupta D.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute | Wiltowski T.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Fuel | Year: 2011

This paper presents the results on the research in the development of a Fe-based catalyst with Co as a co-catalyst, and Ru and ZnO as promoters. The catalytic performance of these materials for FT synthesis was investigated in the gas phase employing a fixed bed reactor system. The Fe-Zn-K/γ-Al 2O3 catalyst performance was used as the benchmark. The data show that by varying the process conditions (T, P, flow rate), it is possible to achieve a narrow distribution of the liquid products. The effect of co-catalysts and promoters such as K and Zn are also presented. The results from a series of Fe4Co1Zn0.04 based catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, in which the different amounts of Ru are incorporated showed that the addition of Ru suppressed the CH4 formation at the cost of increasing the CO2 selectivity. The newly designed catalysts showed significantly high activity towards CO conversion (>70%), along with low selectivity towards CO2 (5-15%) and methane (ND - 3%). It is also shown that the support material plays a role in the selectivities obtained. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Mondal K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Hartman K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Dasgupta D.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute | Trifon G.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Dasari M.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology | Year: 2014

1-D nanostructures are deemed to be important building blocks for future optical and optoelectronic nanodevices. We have used electrospinning methods to synthesize nanofibers and freestanding, non-woven nanofibers membranes of single phase yttrium titanate and ErxY2−xTi2O7 (x = 0–12 %) with diameters less than 150 nm and have characterized the physical, thermal and optical properties. We have demonstrated that such fibers can be synthesized at a relatively low cost and high production volume with a narrow diameter range. No clear phases are observed up to a calcination temperature of 700 °C and pyrochlore phase appear at 725 °C which are also confirmed by the TGA. Single pyrochlore phase is observed at temperatures greater than 900 °C. No other oxide phases are present. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Zhuang Y.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | Martin C.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | Pavlish J.,Energy and Environmental Research Center | Botha F.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute
Fuel | Year: 2011

Parametric experiments were carried out to study the interactions of mercury, SO 3, and injected activated carbon (AC) in a coal flue gas stream. The levels of SO 3 vapor in flue gas were altered by individually varying flue gas temperature, moisture, or sodium fume injection in the flue gas. Meanwhile, mercury emissions with AC injection (ACI) upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) were evaluated under varied SO 3 concentrations. SO 3 measurements using a condensation method indicated that low temperature, high moisture content, and sodium fume injection in flue gas shifted SO 3 partitioning from the vapor to particulate phase, subsequently improving mercury capture with ACI. 0.08 g/m 3 of DARCO ® Hg-LH injection only provided approximately 20% mercury reduction across the ESP in a bituminous coal flue gas containing 28 ppm SO 3, but mercury capture was increased to 80% when the SO 3 vapor concentration was lowered less than 2 ppm. Experimental data clearly demonstrate that elevated SO 3 vapor is the key factor that impedes mercury adsorption on AC, mainly because SO 3 directly competes against mercury for the same binding sites and overwhelmingly consumes all binding sites. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Zhang B.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Yang F.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Akbari H.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Mohanty M.K.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Coal Preparation and Utilization | Year: 2011

A single-deck full-scale Stack Sizer in conjunction with a Falcon Concentrator having a feed handling capacity up to 5 tph was used to demonstrate a new fine coal cleaning circuit especially for high-sulfur coal in this study. The experimental program was conducted to treat a slip stream from the feed to the raw coal cyclones operating in a coal preparation plant in the Midwestern United States. High-efficiency size separation achieved is described by an imperfection value of 0.21 and ultrafine bypass of 4.72% at a d50c of 77 micron. A reasonably low 1.74 specific gravity of separation was achieved by the Falcon Concentrator along with a probable error (Ep) value of 0.13 for cleaning nominally 1-mm × 75-micron coal. For a hypothetical fine coal cleaning circuit treating 100 tph of raw coal, the estimated total cost per ton of feed coal for the traditional fine coal cleaning circuit and the proposed new circuit are $4.93 and $5.89, respectively. However, the authors believe that the significant reduction in sulfur penalty due to better pyrite rejection achievable with the proposed circuit may offset the higher cost of cleaning high-sulfur coal. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Chugh Y.P.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Abbasi B.,Southern Illinois University Carbondale | Hirschi J.,Illinois Clean Coal Institute
28th Annual International Pittsburgh Coal Conference 2011, PCC 2011 | Year: 2011

This research develops an improved scientific understanding of stress distribution and instability around a 4-way coal mine intersection with and without primary and secondary supports. Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed with estimated Hoek-Brown failure criterion parameters for different lithologies associated with the coal seam. Entry width and horizontal stress have a major influence on intersection stability. Pillar ribs across an intersection fail first and lead to progressive failure of immediate roof and floor layers. The failure of roof layers extends about 1.8m, representative of field observations. Coal ribs mostly fail due to tensile stress, while roof and floor strata fail due to shear stresses. Rib corners fail due to a combination of shear and tensile stresses. Primary roof bolt supports significantly improve stability, but are not adequate. A 5-bolt pattern around intersection corners, with 2.4 m long vertical, #7 rebar, pre-tensioned bolts appears best as secondary support. Sequence of mining seems can have a positive effect on mine intersection stability. The "Star" pattern of bolting typically used does not have a major effect on intersection stability. Source

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