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Schwarzmann P.,Illig Maschinenbau GmbH and Co. KG
Kunststoffe International | Year: 2011

The parameters affecting the energy balance of thermoforming machines manufactured by Illig from Germany, employing servomotors for all machine motions, and their effect on productivity, are discussed. Additional energy consumers during thermoforming include the infrared heaters, the heating/cooling units and the air compressors used to generate the compressed air needed for forming. The dynamics of forming is found to increase with the reduced volume of forming air, yielding shorter cycle times and thus productivity increases about 30% while improving product quality. To maintain sharply defined thermoformed parts at reduced forming air pressure, the IR heater temperature must be increased. A roll-fed thermoforming machine with black HTSs heaters consumes up to 35% less electrical energy than one with FSR heaters.


Schwarzmann P.,Illig Maschinenbau GmbH and Co. KG
Kunststoffe International | Year: 2015

The reason for wrinkling during thermoforming is always compression of the material that has been brought to the thermoforming temperature: if the material can no longer compensate for this with its viscoelastic behavior, wrinkles result. © Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich.


Schwarzmann P.,Illig Maschinenbau GmbH and Co. KG
Kunststoffe International | Year: 2015

Chill marks on the molding are caused by localized "chilling" of the heated material before forming. There are a large number of causes of this. Chill marks generally have a negative impact on the molding properties - in the special case of snap fasteners, however, they can also be useful. © Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich.


Schwarzmann P.,Illig Maschinenbau GmbH and Co. KG
Kunststoffe International | Year: 2014

Thermoformed parts generally have localized differences in temperature during production. On cooling, the change in length is then always larger at hotter areas than at cooler areas. Excessive temperature-related differences in the change in length inevitably lead to deformation of the moldings. © Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich.

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