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Howard E.I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Howard E.I.,CONICET | Guillot B.,CNRS Laboratory of Crystallography, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Modelling | Blakeley M.P.,Laue Langevin Institute | And 10 more authors.
IUCrJ | Year: 2016

Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively). These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA) binding pocket. Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H···H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium) positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface. © 2016. Source

Gallat F.-X.,CNRS Institute of Pharmacology and Structural Biology | Gallat F.-X.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Gallat F.-X.,Joseph Fourier University | Gallat F.-X.,Laue Langevin Institute | And 22 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The observation of biological activity in solvent-free protein-polymer surfactant hybrids challenges the view of aqueous and nonaqueous solvents being unique promoters of protein dynamics linked to function. Here, we combine elastic incoherent neutron scattering and specific deuterium labeling to separately study protein and polymer motions in solvent-free hybrids. Myoglobin motions within the hybrid are found to closely resemble those of a hydrated protein, and motions of the polymer surfactant coating are similar to those of the hydration water, leading to the conclusion that the polymer surfactant coating plasticizes protein structures in a way similar to hydration water. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Schiro G.,University Grenoble alpes | Schiro G.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Schiro G.,CEA Grenoble | Fichou Y.,University Grenoble alpes | And 26 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2015

Hydration water is the natural matrix of biological macromolecules and is essential for their activity in cells. The coupling between water and protein dynamics has been intensively studied, yet it remains controversial. Here we combine protein perdeuteration, neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations to explore the nature of hydration water motions at temperatures between 200 and 300K, across the so-called protein dynamical transition, in the intrinsically disordered human protein tau and the globular maltose binding protein. Quasi-elastic broadening is fitted with a model of translating, rotating and immobile water molecules. In both experiment and simulation, the translationa component markedly increases at the protein dynamical transition (around 240K), regardless of whether the protein is intrinsically disordered or folded. Thus, we generalize the notion that the translational diffusion of water molecules on a protein surface promotes the large-amplitude motions of proteins that are required for their biological activity. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Howard E.I.,CONICET | Blakeley M.P.,Laue Langevin Institute | Haertlein M.,Laue Langevin Institute | Haertlein M.,ILL EMBL Deuteration Laboratory | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Recognition | Year: 2011

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) inhibit ice growth at sub-zero temperatures. The prototypical type-III AFPs have been extensively studied, notably by X-ray crystallography, solid-state and solution NMR, and mutagenesis, leading to the identification of a compound ice-binding surface (IBS) composed of two adjacent ice-binding sections, each which binds to particular lattice planes of ice crystals, poisoning their growth. This surface, including many hydrophobic and some hydrophilic residues, has been extensively used to model the interaction of AFP with ice. Experimentally observed water molecules facing the IBS have been used in an attempt to validate these models. However, these trials have been hindered by the limited capability of X-ray crystallography to reliably identify all water molecules of the hydration layer. Due to the strong diffraction signal from both the oxygen and deuterium atoms, neutron diffraction provides a more effective way to determine the water molecule positions (as D 2O). Here we report the successful structure determination at 293 K of fully perdeuterated type-III AFP by joint X-ray and neutron diffraction providing a very detailed description of the protein and its solvent structure. X-ray data were collected to a resolution of 1.05 Å, and neutron Laue data to a resolution of 1.85 Å with a "radically small" crystal volume of 0.13 mm3. The identification of a tetrahedral water cluster in nuclear scattering density maps has allowed the reconstruction of the IBS-bound ice crystal primary prismatic face. Analysis of the interactions between the IBS and the bound ice crystal primary prismatic face indicates the role of the hydrophobic residues, which are found to bind inside the holes of the ice surface, thus explaining the specificity of AFPs for ice versus water. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Petit-Haertlein I.,ILL EMBL Deuteration Laboratory | Petit-Haertlein I.,Laue Langevin Institute | Blakeley M.P.,Laue Langevin Institute | Howard E.,CONICET | And 5 more authors.
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications | Year: 2010

Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in different species from polar, alpine and subarctic regions, where they serve to inhibit ice-crystal growth by adsorption to ice surfaces. Recombinant North Atlantic ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) AFP has been used as a model protein to develop protocols for amino-acid-specific hydrogen reverse-labelling of methyl groups in leucine and valine residues using Escherichia coli high-density cell cultures supplemented with the amino-acid precursor -ketoisovalerate. Here, the successful methyl protonation (methyl reverse-labelling) of leucine and valine residues in AFP is reported. Methyl-protonated AFP was expressed in inclusion bodies, refolded in deuterated buffer and purified by cation-exchange chromatography. Crystals were grown in D2O buffer by the sitting-drop method. Preliminary neutron Laue diffraction at 293 K using LADI-III at ILL showed in a few 24 h exposures a very low background and clear small spots up to a resolution of 1.80 Å from a crystal of dimensions 1.60 0.38 0.38 mm corresponding to a volume of 0.23 mm3. © International Union of Crystallography 2010. Source

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