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Ballarin B.,University of Bologna | Mignani A.,University of Bologna | Mogavero F.,University of Bologna | Gabbanini S.,BeC S.r.l. | Morigi M.,Ilios srl
Applied Clay Science | Year: 2015

A simple method to prepare a hybrid material (ZnAl-AgNPs) based on silver nanoparticles and ZnAl layered double hydroxides (ZnAl LDHs), for possible use in a cosmetic formulation as deodorant, was reported. ZnAl-AgNPs, include the high adsorption capacity, the biocompatibility, the antacid properties of LDH and the antibacterial activity of AgNPs. According to the characterization with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), it was possible to confirm that interaction of AgNPs with ZnAl LDH occurs by adsorption rather than intercalation of AgNPs in LDH. The deodorant activity of ZnAl-AgNPs was tested using the headspace solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) and the antibacterial property was monitored on gram-negative bacteria. For comparison raw ZnAl LDH was also investigated. The results showed that both raw ZnAl LDH and ZnAl-AgNPs have deodorant activity higher than that of zinc ricinoleate, normally used in commercial formulations. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Ballarin B.,University of Bologna | Galli S.,Ilios srl | Mogavero F.,University of Bologna | Morigi M.,Ilios srl
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2011

Synopsis In this work, the effects of a new class of polymers generally used in hair and skin cleansing products, the SoftCAT (SofCAT SL and SoftCAT SX), on the dye uptake on the hair fibre and the fading effects has been studied. These polymers, based on quaternary ammonium salts of hydroxyethylcellulose, are cationic products that differ in viscosity, hydrophobic substitution index (HS) and/or cationic substitution (CS, % N). UV-Vis spectroscopy has been used to analyse the extracted dyes from the hair cuticle and the cortex. The results indicate that the presence of polymers in the dye bath improve both the quality of the dyeing process and the anti-fading effect during the washing cycles. This phenomenon is postulated to be attributable to the polymers hydrophobically bonding with the dyes and so facilitating their increased penetration into the hair. © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie. Source


Boga C.,University of Bologna | Taddei P.,University of Bologna | Micheletti G.,University of Bologna | Ascari F.,University of Bologna | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Cosmetic Science | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE: Formaldehyde is an effective and popular semipermanent hair straightener, but the severe consequences for human health due to its toxicity have prompted the search for safer alternatives. Different carbonyl compounds, including glyoxylic acid, have recently been proposed as promising candidates. Despite the interest in this topic, there is a lack of information about the interactions between hair keratin and straightener agents. This study addresses this issue to gain new insights useful in the development of new products for safe, semipermanent hair deformation.METHODS: The possible reactions occurring between carbonyl groups and nucleophilic sites on amino acid residues belonging to the keratin were investigated using as model compounds some aldehydes and amino acid derivatives. Raman and IR analyses on yak hair subjected to the straightening treatment with glyoxylic acid in different conditions were carried out. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were carried out on yak and curly human hair after each step of the straightening procedure.RESULTS: The reactions between aldehydes and N-a-acetyl-Llysine revealed the importance of the carbonyl electrophilicity and temperature to form imines. Raman and IR analyses on yak hair subjected to the straightening treatment evidenced rearrangements in the secondary structure distribution, conformational changes to the disulphide bridges, a decrease of the serine residues and formation of imines. It was also indicated that straightening produced major conformational rearrangements within the hair fibre rather than on the cuticle.CONCLUSION: This investigation revealed the role played by the electrophilicity of the carbonyl on the straightener agent and of the temperature, closely related to the dehydration process. Raman and IR studies indicated the involvement of imine bonds and the occurrence of a sequence of conformational modifications during the straightening procedure. SEM analyses showed the effectiveness of the treatment at the cuticular level. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie. Source


Boga C.,University of Bologna | Delpivo C.,University of Bologna | Morigi M.,Ilios srl | Galli S.,Ilios srl | And 2 more authors.
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2013

Organic compounds present in plants have been used in various experimental conditions for dyeing tests aimed to develop safe and environmentally friendly temporary and semipermanent hair dyes. Yak hairs were used as a model for the colorimetric evaluation of red, yellow, blue, and brown shades conferred to hair by selected natural compounds. Two different sources for red, yellow, blue and brown shades were tested. Anthocyanins from mulberry fruits and alizarin emerged as promising candidates for red shades, anthocyanin-blue and curcumin for blue and yellow, respectively, and p-benzoquinone and juglone for browns. The influence of pH, dye concentration, soaking time, and medium in which the dyes have been dissolved or dispersed has been studied. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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