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Lenz F.,Asfinag BMG | Marcher T.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH | Neumayr T.,IL Ingenieurburo Laabmayr and Partner ZT GesmbH
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2010

Construction works were started for the 2nd tube of the Bosruck road tunnel on the A9 Pyhrn motorway in December 2009, as part of the ongoing upgrade to full motorway standard by ASFINAG. In the course of the more than 100-year history of tunnelling under the Grosse Bosruck, this tunnel is the fourth tunnel to be built in this part of the central mountain range of the Eastern Alps. The 4,766 m long single-track railway tunnel was constructed between 1901 and 1906, the ventilation and drainage tunnel for the road tunnel between 1978 and 1980, and the approximately 5,500 m long road tunnel for two-way traffic was constructed between 1980 and 1983. Soon after being opened for traffic, substantial damage became apparent in the road tunnel. It was only possible to maintain operation by means of continuous and costly rehabilitation measures. In 2005, the extent of damage finally led to the decision to add a second tube to the road tunnel and to carry out a general rehabilitation of the existing tube of the road tunnel. The main conclusions regarding the swelling and squeezing behaviour drawn from the damage that had occurred in the first tube of the road tunnel were exploited for the design and construction of the second tube and are the subject of this paper. © 2010 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.

Bopp R.,Both Gruner GmbH Ingenieure und Planer | Neumann C.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH | Langner V.,Both Gruner GmbH Ingenieure und Planer | Wagner O.K.,OBB Infrastruktur AG
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2010

For the conception of the emergency ventilation and the design of the ventilation system for the New Semmering Base Tunnel, particular demands apply, which are based on specific protection objectives and defined in the Tunnel Safety Concept. The main objective is to keep the safe areas (the refuge room at the emergency station, opposite tube, portals) free of smoke. This paper deals with the Safety Concept and the tunnel ventilation. A methodical approach was applied to prevent single critical scenarios being weighted too heavily in the design of the ventilation equipment. This achieved an optimisation of the entire system instead of designing the ventilation system for isolated extreme scenarios. © 2010 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co.

Saurer E.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH | Marcher T.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH | Marcher T.,SKAVA consulting ZT GmbH | Schadlich B.,University of Graz | Schweiger H.,University of Graz
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2014

This paper presents the validation of a novel constitutive model for shotcrete in a tunnelling project. The shotcrete model is based on elastoplastic strain hardening/softening plasticity and can account for time dependent strength and stiffness, creep and shrinkage. The validation of the model considers the deformation behaviour of both the primary lining and the surface as well as the time dependent stress strain behaviour of the shotcrete. The calibrated model has been used to simulate the behaviour of the tunnel structure during the excavation process numerically. Furthermore different approaches to model the shotcrete lining for design are applied and briefly discussed. © 2014 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.

Krenn H.,Zueblin Spezialtiefbau Ges.m.b.H | Roner M.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH | Bauert M.,Amberg Engineering AG | Wannenmacher H.,Amberg Engineering AG
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2013

The recently completed Niagara Tunnel Facility Project in the province of Ontario in Canada is an extension of the Sir Adam Beck hydropower station originally built in the 19th century. The project includes the construction of a diversion tunnel to supply the existing hydropower station with an additional 500 m3 of water per second. The long-term stability of the unreinforced concrete lining is assured by a passive prestressed concrete lining according to the principles of Seeber. The operational water pressures reach 13 bar at the deepest point of the tunnel. In order to be able to monitor the slight deformations of the lining in the course of the prestressing process, an innovatively thought-out method of surveying had to be developed. The results of the deformation and long-term monitoring are presented. © 2013 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.

The engineering geological documentation of slurry shield drives is limited due to adverse accessibility of the tunnel face during a slurry shield drive. Due to this reason, an extensive geological documentation was rather an exception than default in the past. A detailed engineering geological documentation has been established during two slurry shield drives in Tyrol/Austria, which showed that geological documentation is possible and contributes well to supporting the site management. The documentation comprises two parts: the indirect documentation of the excavated material and the direct documentation of the tunnel face under hyperbaric air support during maintenance interruptions. Combining the results of indirect and direct documentation leads to a complete and detailed picture of the geological conditions. Therefore it will become possible to compare the prognosis to the encountered condition. Furthermore profound consideration of geological aspects leads to a better understanding of interactions between building ground and slurry shield drive. © 2012 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.

Kohler M.,OBB Infrastruktur Bau AG | Maidl U.,Mtc Maidl Tunnelconsultants GmbH and Co. KG | Scholz M.,Ingenieurburo Muller und Hereth | Wendl K.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2012

Two tunnels were driven in the Lower Inn valley in the years 2007 to 2009 using almost identical mixshields (Ø 13.03 m) under difficult geotechnical conditions. The tunnelling works were monitored and recorded permanently in real time, from which information can be gained about the system of shield machine and surrounding ground. The documentation of the ground conditions was undertaken by geologists working for the client. The continuous documentation of tunnelling included reporting on the excavated material as the drive was underway and the documentation of face conditions during compressed air interruptions. The combination of recorded machine data and the geological documentation of the tunnel drive provides an extensive data basis, whose evaluation shows the complex relationships of the various tunnelling parameters. © 2012 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.

For the construction of the first tube of the Pfänder Tunnel, a pilot tunnel was excavated in 1974/1975 in advance of the main tunnel using two open TBMs. As a result of the positive experiences made with the pilot tunnel, the tenders for the excavation of the first tube included both a NATM advance and a TBM advance with open TBM. On the basis of the offers obtained, the first tube was constructed between 1977 and 1979, using the NATM. For the construction of the second tube a qualitative comparison was performed, based on which it was recommended that the tender documents should cover both construction methods, the NATM and the TBM. Asfinag chose the NATM excavation as basic tender design and included the TBM excavation with shield TBM as fully fledged alternative in the tendering procedure. For the respective boundary conditions such as scope of services, operation and maintenance costs, a financial evaluation of both methods was performed and the difference in cost was considered when selecting the construction method. The method ultimately selected after reviewing the offers was a shield TBM advance. © 2011 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co.

Grunicke U.H.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH | Ristic M.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2012

Pressure tunnels with pre-stressed concrete linings are recognised as state-of-the-art technology. Numerous pre-stressed concrete linings, featuring diameters of up to 6 m, have been successfully implemented over the last few decades. This paper on the Niagara Tunnel Facility Project (NTFP) illustrates how the concept of passive pre-stressing can be further developed for application in increasingly complex geometrical and geotechnical boundary conditions. The diversion tunnel with an excavation diameter of 14.4 m was advanced in horizontal layers of sedimentary rock, which are characterised by a wide range of strengths and anisotropic stiffnesses as well as by pronounced time-dependent deformation behaviour. The in-situ stress field is marked by an exceptionally high horizontal stress, which s several times greater than the overburden pressure. The ground has a considerable swelling potential and is highly aggressive to concrete. This combination of difficult geotechnical conditions and unusual structural dimensions poses an unprecedented challenge to the designers with respect to both the design of the pre-stressed final lining and the planning of the grouting works. The long-term behaviour is modelled with the help of higher-order creep and shrinkage laws, which are calibrated based on trials and measurements. © 2012 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.

Heis H.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH | Parth B.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH
Underground - The Way to the Future: Proceedings of the World Tunnel Congress, WTC 2013 | Year: 2013

ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH (ILF), a leading engineering company in the field of tunnel design, developed the innovative 3D lighting software T-light which offers progressive tunnel lighting calculations especially for areas with undefined lighting situations such as galleries or for areas with changing cross-sections such as at lay-bys or at entries and exits inside the tunnel. In addition any obstructions inside a tunnel, such as jet fans, can also be taken into consideration for the calculation and lighting design. A general description of the basic concept of T-light is included in this paper together with the generation of a 3D model; further information is provided on the parameter setting and changing as well as on the different possibilities for evaluating and depicting of the calculation results. Two illustrative examples underline the significant advantages of T-light in practice. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group.

Volderauer C.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH | Galler R.,University of Leoben | Marcher T.,ILF Beratende Ingenieure ZT GmbH
Geomechanik und Tunnelbau | Year: 2013

The present article discusses the results of 3D numerical simulations of a deep section of the west bore of the Gotthard Base Tunnel in the geological formation of the Clavaniev Zone. For the calibration of the numerical model, the geological and geotechnical documentation from both the design and the construction phase as well as the daily and monthly reports from the site were made available by the AlpTransit Gotthard AG. Working from this documentation, three-dimensional simulations were performed with various material models. The objective of the investigations was to realistically determine geotechnical data, both for the deformation of the sidewalls and in an axial direction ahead of the face, for future 3D calculations of deep tunnels. © 2013 Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin.

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