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iland Internet Solutions provides hosted cloud infrastructure as a service for production business applications, disaster recovery and business continuity, testing and development, and software as a service enablement for independent software vendors. iland also provides traditional colocation and hybrid cloud solutions. Founded in 1995, iland provides its services from high availability hubs specifically designed for cloud infrastructure in Boston, Washington D.C., Houston, Los Angeles, Dallas, and London. iland is a Premier-level partner in the VMware Service Provider Program . Wikipedia.

Olarte Mantilla S.M.,University of Adelaide | Collins C.,University of Adelaide | Iland P.G.,University of Adelaide | Iland P.G.,iland | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2012

Berry Sensory Assessment (BSA) is a technique that can help grapegrowers and winemakers to make decisions about harvest date and allocation of grapes. As a structured technique, BSA has been used by grapegrowers, winemakers and researchers for the last 11 years. The number of studies, however, reporting results of the effect of viticultural practices on berry sensory characteristics and wine quality is limited. The extent to which both Australian and New Zealand winemakers and grapegrowers use BSA and their opinions about the application and their expectations of this technique has not been evaluated. The aims of this review are: first, to review the different BSA techniques employed to date within the wine industry and oenological research, and to consider some practical applications of BSA; and second, to reveal and discuss a survey undertaken by Australian and New Zealand winemakers and grapegrowers about current use of BSA. Knowledge gaps in BSA resultant from the review and the survey are identified. © 2012 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.

Olarte Mantilla S.M.,University of Adelaide | Collins C.,University of Adelaide | Iland P.G.,University of Adelaide | Iland P.G.,iland | And 3 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2013

Background and Aims: We examined whether a sensory difference between fresh and frozen berries could be detected using Berry Sensory Assessment (BSA). If no sensory difference was detected, then fresh berries could be frozen and assessed later, thus reducing the problem of palate fatigue for assessors. Methods and Results: Twenty-five sensory attributes of fresh and frozen Shiraz berries were evaluated by Descriptive Analysis at three times of harvest, 'before harvest', 'harvest' and 'after harvest'. In addition total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA) and berry mass were measured for all berry samples. Five sensory attributes were consistently different at the three times of harvest - pulp sweetness, pulp fresh fig flavour, skin colour extraction, skin bitterness and seed astringency. Frozen berries were characterised by having pulp sweetness, pulp fresh ripe fig flavour and seed astringency higher than that of fresh berries. Whereas fresh berries had skin colour extraction and bitterness higher than that of frozen samples, freezing did not affect TSS, but pH in frozen berries was higher than that in fresh berries at each harvest. Titratable acidity was lower in frozen berries at harvest and at after harvest. Freezing reduced berry mass before harvest and at each harvest compared with that of fresh berries. Conclusions: Shiraz berries that are frozen and thawed have a sensory profile different to that of fresh berries. Time of harvest affects the sensory attributes of Shiraz berries, whether they have been frozen or assessed when fresh. Significance of the Study: Freezing and thawing affect grape berry sensory attributes as assessed by BSA and berry composition and, therefore, comparing results from frozen and fresh berries may not be valid. Further work is required to determine the effect of freezing temperature, storage period and thawing procedure. © 2013 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.

Mantilla S.M.O.,University of Adelaide | Collins C.,University of Adelaide | Iland P.G.,iland | Kidman C.M.,University of Adelaide | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2015

Relationships among sensory attributes, compositional measures, and wine quality of Shiraz grapes and wines were evaluated for two seasons, 2009 to 2010 and 2010 to 2011. The sensory profiles of berries and wines were evaluated by descriptive analysis and wine quality was assessed by an expert panel. In this study, berry sensory attributes alone were better predictors of wine sensory and compositional variables than the combination of berry sensory and compositional variables. Partial least squares regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation revealed a negative relationship between seed bitterness and wine savory spice flavor in both seasons. In 2011, pulp detachment from the skin correlated with wine sensory attributes such as rim color, fresh dark berry flavor, savory spice flavor, and wine quality score. Correlations among wine sensory attributes, wine pigmented polymers, and wine total tannins were identified in both seasons. These findings are important for grapegrowers and winemakers as they identify berry sensory attributes that may assist as objective measures in predicting final wine style and quality. © 2015 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.

Ristic R.,University of Adelaide | Bindon K.,The Australian Wine Research Institute | Francis L.I.,The Australian Wine Research Institute | Herderich M.J.,The Australian Wine Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research | Year: 2010

Background and Aims: This study investigated flavonoid composition and C13-norisoprenoids (β-damascenone and β-ionone) in Shiraz grapes and wines, their relationships and links to wine sensory properties. Methods and Results: Differences in the grape berry flavonoid profile were created by exposing bunches to varying levels of sunlight intensity through canopy manipulation. Grapes were harvested at similar maturity and three replicate wines were made for each treatment in both vintages. Grapes produced under shaded canopy conditions had reduced anthocyanins and skin tannins, but little effect on seed tannins was observed. Pigmented polymers and tannins in wines were related to berry flavonoid composition (anthocyanins, skin and seed tannins, and their ratios). In grapes and wines, no significant effects were observed in response to canopy manipulation for two hydrolytically released C13norisoprenoids, β-damascenone and β-ionone. Relationships were established for wine flavonoid composition, wine colour density, sensory perception of the astringency-related mouth-feel attributes and a quality scale. A positive relationship between wine quality score and hydrolytically released β-damascenone in both berries and wines was found, but not for free β-damascenone or any quantified forms of β-ionone. Conclusion: Higher concentrations of anthocyanins and skin tannins in berries, coupled with a lower concentration of seed tannins were associated with higher wine quality. The ratio anthocyanins*skin tannins/seed tannins is proposed as an indicator of wine flavonoid composition, wine colour and wine quality. Excessive canopy shade was detrimental to berry and wine composition and intensified sensory detection of 'straw' and 'herbaceous' characters in the wines. Significance of the Study: This study increases the understanding of the balance and composition of flavonoid compounds and C13-norisoprenoids in berries and their relationship with wine composition and wine sensory properties, but also highlights the importance of a canopy microclimate assessment. © 2010 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.

Holt H.E.,The Australian Wine Research Institute | Birchmore W.,Constellation Wines Australia | Herderich M.J.,The Australian Wine Research Institute | Herderich M.J.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2010

The trends in changes to berry weight and phenolic concentrations of Cabernet Sauvignon berries during the later stages of berry ripening from different pruning and irrigation treatments were examined. Maturity was defined as total soluble solids (TSS). Berry phenolic concentration was examined using a 50% ethanol extract of grape homogenate, which is commonly used in the Australian wine industry to measure grape anthocyanins. Berry weight and berry composition were examined at three maturity stages over three vintages. Three pruning treatments were established with two irrigation treatments superimposed to provide a wide range of berry sizes and phenolic measures. Increasing maturity had consistent effects on berry weight across vintages and on berry phenolic composition within vintages. In a commercial context, peak total anthocyanin concentration and content might be a useful guide to harvest decisions, but in this study total phenolic and tannin measures did not assist in these decisions, as these measures were highest at higher than commercially acceptable TSS. In a research context, this information can be useful in determining the pattern of anthocyanin, total phenolic, and tannin accumulation and decline and would be useful in conjunction with wine measures of these parameters to determine relationships between berry and wine composition. Pruning treatments were associated with consistent effects on berry weight across vintages and maturity stages and consistent effects on total anthocyanin and total phenolic concentrations, but not on tannin concentrations. Irrigation effects were less consistent within or between vintages and the effects were highly dependent on vintage conditions. © 2010 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture.

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