News Article | December 20, 2016
Dublin, Dec. 20, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "HDAC Inhibitors Market, 2016 - 2026" report to their offering. The HDAC Inhibitors Market, 2016-2026 report was commissioned to examine the current landscape and the future outlook of the growing pipeline of products in this area. HDACs have been studied in cellular processes such as apoptosis, autophagy, metabolism, DNA damage repair, cell cycle control and senescence. Altered expression of HDACs has been observed in different tumors; this makes them a potential target for treatment of cancer and other genetic or epigenetic related disorders. Inhibition of HDACs has shown positive results in disruption of multiple cell signaling pathways and prevention of tumor growth. The study provides a detailed market forecast and opportunity analysis for the time period 2016-2026. The research, analysis and insights presented in this report include potential sales of the approved drugs and the ones in late stages of development (phase III and phase II). To add robustness to our model, we have provided three scenarios for our market forecast; these include the conservative, base and optimistic scenarios. Our opinions and insights, presented in this study were influenced by several discussions we conducted with experts in this area. All actual figures have been sourced and analyzed from publicly available information forums and primary research discussions. Financial figures mentioned in this report are in USD, unless otherwise specified. Example Highlights - Nearly 90 HDAC inhibitors are currently in clinical / preclinical stages of development; the clinical molecules account for over 30% of the pipeline while over 60% is captured by molecules in the preclinical / discovery stage. - With 66% of the pipeline molecules targeting oncological indications, cancer remains one of the most widely studied field for HDAC inhibitors. Within oncology, hematological malignancies such as PTCL and CTCL are popular targets; three HDAC inhibitors (Zolinza, ISTODAX® and BELEODAQ®) are approved for these indications. Other therapeutic areas such as autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, inflammatory disorders, neurological disorders, are also gradually gaining traction. - Although the market was initially led by the large-size pharma players (such as Celgene, Merck, Novartis), the current market is characterized by the presence of several small / mid-sized pharma players. Notable examples of the small and mid-sized firms include 4SC, Chroma Therapeutics, CrystalGenomics, Curis, Evgen Pharma, FORUM Pharmaceuticals, Karus Therapeutics, Mirati Therapeutics, MEI Pharma, Shenzhen Chipscreen Biosciences, Syndax Pharmaceuticals and TetraLogic Pharmaceuticals. - In addition, there are several non-industry institutes and universities that are primarily carrying out preclinical research. Examples of these include Harvard Medical School (BG45), Imperial College London (C1A), Kyoto University (Jd, Sd), National Taiwan University (Quinazolin-4-one derivatives), Taipei Medical University (MPT0E028), University of Messina (MC-1575, MC-1568). - Four of the five approved drugs are pan-HDAC inhibitors targeting HDAC isoforms non-specifically. However, in the past few years, several class selective HDAC inhibitors have entered the clinic; these are associated with a higher efficacy and result in decreased toxicity from the treatment. Of the total HDAC inhibitors identified, 52% of the molecules are class specific; of these, 33% molecules target Class I specific isoforms and the rest target Class II specific isoforms of HDACs. Notable examples of molecules targeting class-specific HDACs includeentinostat (phase III), resminostat (phase II), SHP-141 (phase II), mocetinostat (phase II), CHR-3996 (phase I/II) and ricolinostat (phase I/II). - The HDAC inhibitors market is expected to grow at a healthy annual rate of 32% over the next decade.With multiple potential target indications, Istodax® is expected to capture the largest market share (close to 21%) in 2026, followed by entinostat, Farydak® and Beleodaq®. Key Topics Covered: 1. Preface 1.1. Scope Of The Report 1.2. Research Methodology 1.3. Chapter Outlines 2. Executive Summary 3. Introduction 3.1. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology and Cell Cycle 3.2. DNA: Structure and Functions 3.3. Fundamentals of Epigenetics 3.3.1. Effect of Histone Modification on DNA Based Processes 3.3.2. Chromatin Structure Modification and its Enzymes 3.4. Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) 3.4.1. Classification of HDACs 3.4.2. Role of HDACs and HDAC Inhibitors in Cellular Processes 3.5. HDAC Inhibitors 3.5.1. Structure and Classification 3.5.2. Different Types of HDAC Inhibitors 3.5.3. Therapeutic Applications of HDAC Inhibitors 4. HDAC Inhibitors: Market Landscape 4.1. Chapter Overview 4.2. Development Pipeline of HDAC Inhibitors 4.3. Distribution by Phase of Development 4.4. Distribution by Therapeutic Area 4.5. Distribution by Class Specificity 4.6. Distribution by Type of Developer 4.7. Distribution by Geography 4.8. Active Industry Players 5. Drug Profiles: Marketed And Late-Stage HDAC Inhibitors 5.1. Chapter Overview 5.2. Company and Drug Profiles: Marketed and Phase III Molecules 5.2.1. Celgene Corporation 5.2.3. Novartis 5.2.4. Shenzhen Chipscreen Biosciences 5.2.5. Syndax Pharmaceuticals 5.3. Drug Profiles: Phase II Molecules 5.3.1. Abexinostat (PCI-24781) 5.3.2. CUDC-907 5.3.3. FRM-0334 (EVP-0334) 5.3.4. Givinostat (ITF2357) 5.3.5. Mocetinostat (MGCD103) 5.3.6. Pracinostat (SB939) 5.3.7. Resminostat (4SC-201) 5.3.8. SFX-01 5.3.9. SHAPE (SHP-141) 5.3.10. Tefinostat (CHR-2845) 6. Key Insights: Therapeutic Area, Class Specificity, Clinical Endpoints 6.1. Clinical Development Analysis: Class Specificity and Therapeutic Areas 6.2. Clinical Development Analysis: Developer Landscape 6.3. Clinical Development Analysis: Trial Endpoint Comparison 7. Market Forecast And Opportunity Analysis 7.1. Chapter Overview 7.2. Scope and Limitations 7.3. Forecast Methodology 7.4. Overall HDAC Inhibitors Market 7.5. HDAC Inhibitors Market: Individual Forecasts 7.5.1. Zolinza (Merck) 7.5.2. Istodax® (Celgene Corporation) 7.5.3. Beleodaq® (Onxeo) 7.5.4. Farydak® (Novartis) 7.5.5. Epidaza® (Shenzhen Chipscreen Biosciences) 7.5.6. Entinostat (Syndax Pharmaceuticals) 7.5.7. Abexinostat (Pharmacyclics) 7.5.8. CUDC-907 (Curis) 7.5.9. FRM-0334 (FORUM Pharmaceuticals) 7.5.10. Mocetinostat (Mirati Therapeutics) 7.5.11. Pracinostat (MEI Pharma) 7.5.12. Resminostat (4SC, Menarini, Yakult Honsha) 7.5.13. SFX-01 (Evgen Pharma) 7.5.14. SHP-141 (TetraLogic Pharmaceuticals) 7.5.15. Tefinostat (Chroma Therapeutics) 8. Publication Analysis 8.1. Chapter Overview 8.2. HDAC Inhibitors: Publications 8.3. Publication Analysis: Quarterly Distribution 8.4. Publication Analysis: Distribution by HDAC Inhibitor Class 8.5. Publication Analysis: Distribution by Drugs Studied 8.6. Publication Analysis: Distribution by Therapeutic Area 8.7. Publication Analysis: Distribution by Journals 8.8. Publication Analysis: Distribution by Phase of Development 8.9. Publication Analysis: Distribution by Type of Therapy 9. Social Media: Emerging Trends 9.1. Chapter Overview 9.1.1. Trends on Twitter 9.1.2. Trends on Facebook 10. Conclusion 10.1. The Pipeline is Healthy with Several Molecules in Preclinical Stages of Development 10.2. HDAC Inhibitors Cater to a Wide Spectrum of Disease Areas 10.3. Class Specific HDAC Inhibitors Have Been Explored for a More Targeted Approach 10.4. The Interest is Gradually Rising Amongst Both Industry and Non-Industry Players 10.5. Supported by a Robust Preclinical Pipeline, HDAC Inhibitors are Expected to Emerge as A Multi-Billion Dollar Market 11. Interview Transcripts 11.1. Chapter Overview 11.2. Dr. Simon Kerry, CEO, Karus Therapeutics 11.3. Dr. James Christensen, CSO and Senior VP, Mirati Therapeutics 11.4. Dr. Hyung J. Chun, MD, FAHA, Associate Professor of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine 12. Appendix 1: Tabulated Data 13. Appendix 2: List Of Companies And Organizations Companies Mentioned - 4SC - AACR - AbbVie - Acceleron Pharma - Acetylon Pharmaceuticals - Active Biotech - Agios Pharmaceuticals - ASH - Arno Therapeutics - Astellas Pharma - Bayer Schering Pharma - Baylor College of Medicine - BioMarin - Bionor Immuno - bluebird bio - Case Comprehensive Cancer Center - Celera Genomics - Celgene - Celleron Therapeutics - Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie - CETYA Therapeutics - CHDI Foundation - Chipscreen Biosciences - Chong Kun Dang Pharmaceutical - Chroma Therapeutics - Croix-Rousse Hospital - CrystalGenomics - Curis - DAC - Diaxonhit - DNA Therapeutics - Duke University - ECOG-ACRIN Cancer Research Group - Eddingpharm - Eisai - Epizyme - Errant Gene Therapeutics - European Calcified Tissue Society - Evgen Pharma - FORMA Therapeutics - FORUM Pharmaceuticals - Fudan University - Genentech - Genextra - Gilead - Gloucester Pharmaceuticals - GNT Biotech - GSK - Harvard Medical School - Henan Cancer Hospital - HUYA Biosciences - Ikerchem - Imperial College London - In2Gen - International Bone and Mineral Society - Israel Cancer Association and Bar Ilan University - Italfarmaco - Johnson and Johnson - Kalypsys - Karus Therapeutics - King's College, University of London - Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine - Kyoto University - Kyowa Hakko Kirin - Leukemia and Lymphoma Society - Lymphoma Academic Research Organization - Massachusetts General Hospital - Mayo Clinic - MedImmune - MEI Pharma - Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center - Menarini - Merck - MethylGene - Mirati Therapeutics - Morphosys - Mundipharma-EDO - National Brain Research Centre - National Comprehensive Cancer Network - National Taiwan University - NCI - Novartis - NuPotential - Oceanyx Pharma - Oncolys Biopharma - Onxeo - Onyx - Orchid Pharma - Paterson Institute for Cancer Research - Pfizer - Pharmacyclics - Pharmion Corporation - Quimatryx - Quintiles - Repligen - Respiratorius - Roche - Rodin Therapeutics - Royal Veterinary College, University of London - Ruijin Hospital - S*Bio - Sarcoma Alliance for Research through Collaboration - Seattle Genetics - Servier Canada - Shape Pharmaceuticals - Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center - Sigma Tau Pharmaceuticals - Signal Rx - SpeBio - Spectrum Pharmaceuticals - Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research - Sutro Biopharma - Syndax Pharmaceuticals - Synovo GmbH - Taipei Medical University - TetraLogic Pharmaceuticals - University of Liverpool - University of Messina - University of Miami - Vanderbilt University School of Medicine - Ventana Medical Systems - Vilnius University - Yakult Honsha - Yale University - Yonsei University College of Medicine For more information about this report visit http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/srvj3j/hdac_inhibitors
News Article | December 14, 2016
Older adults are less inclined to take risks, but this behavior may be linked to changes in brain anatomy rather than age, according to a new study resulting from a collaboration between Yale and NYU. The finding adds to scientific understanding of decision making and may lead to strategies for modifying changes in risk behavior as people age. The study was published on Dec. 13 by Nature Communications. Research has demonstrated that older adults are less inclined to take certain types of risks, such as participating in a lottery. In a prior study, associate professor of comparative medicine and neuroscience Ifat Levy and colleagues documented a link between tolerance for taking risks and gray matter volume in an area in the back of the brain known as the posterior parietal cortex; the more gray matter young adults had, the more likely they were to take risks. In the new study, Levy and her co-authors, including first author Michael Grubb, a former NYU postdoc and currently at Trinity College, examined the phenomenon in older adults, who experience a natural decline in gray matter volume with age. The research team studied whether changes in gray matter volume in the posterior parietal cortex, or aging itself, accounted for older adults’ tendency to avoid risk. For the study, the research team presented a series of choices to 52 study participants, aged 18 to 88 years. Participants could either receive $5 or take their chances with a lottery of varying amounts and probabilities. For example, a participant could choose the certain gain of $5 or opt for a 25 percent chance of getting $20. Participants were each assigned a number denoting their level of risk tolerance based on their choices. The researchers also measured the gray matter volume in the posterior parietal cortex of each subject, drawn from MRI scans. After analyzing the risk choices and MRI measurements, the researchers confirmed that age-related decline in risk tolerance correlates more with changes in brain anatomy than with age. “We found that if we use both the gray matter volume and age together as predictors of risk attitudes, the gray matter volume is significant, while age is not,” said Levy. “This means that gray matter volume accounts for age-related changes in risk attitude more than age itself.” The finding provides new insight into neurological factors that affect risk preferences and decision making among older adults. It may also lead to strategies for modifying decision making. “We could use this understanding in order to try to, behaviorally or pharmacologically, change flawed decision making,” said Levy. “By understanding the basic processes at the core of complex behavioral changes, we facilitate ways to intervene and improve decision making.” Other study authors include Agnieszka Tymula (University of Sydney), Sharon Gilaie-Dotan (Bar Ilan University), and Paul W. Glimcher (NYU). The study was supported by grants from the National Institute on Aging (National Institutes of Health).
News Article | December 16, 2016
Physicists in Israel and the US have proposed a new type of travelling wave pattern -- one that can adapt to the size of physical system in which it is embedded - reporting the work in the New Journal of Physics. According to the theory, all of the key characteristics of the oscillation (the number of maxima, minima and nodes) remain the same, over a very wide range of host sizes, which turns out to be an exciting result. The scientists, David Kessler from Bar Ilan University and Herbert Levine from Rice University, share an interest in the dynamics of non-equilibrium systems - a topic that can often shed light on intricate processes such as those found in nature. "This work started as an attempt to generate an interesting example of wave patterns for a book we are writing on the overall field of pattern formation," said Herbert Levine of Rice University's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics. "Wave patterns are one of the general classes of non-equilibrium structures that can form when systems are driven far from equilibrium." Familiar examples include travelling wave patterns that describe the convection of fluid mixtures in response to temperature gradients. However, the researchers were drawn to the oscillatory behaviour displayed by the MIN system - a group of proteins involved in the cell division of bacteria such as E.Coli. "The MIN system is used to demarcate the center of a cell so that it divides into two symmetric daughters," said Levine. "Having a mechanism that allows the wave pattern to 'stretch' without changing all that much is a logical way to deal with this cell growth." By modelling the behaviour, the researchers found that - unlike other examples of pattern forming processes - the process at work here does not appear to be governed by a precise length scale. "Because of this, the waves seem to be more adaptable to the size of the region in which they live," Levine said. "This is an interesting finding from a pure physics perspective, but it may also have some implications from a biological point of view." The result could pave the way for new insights into how proteins are able to self-organize and accurately 'map' the surface of a cell as it grows. And, in principle, this knowledge may one day help in drug development by alerting scientists to ways of interfering with the spread of harmful bacteria.
News Article | December 16, 2016
According to the theory, all of the key characteristics of the oscillation (the number of maxima, minima and nodes) remain the same, over a very wide range of host sizes, which turns out to be an exciting result. The scientists, David Kessler from Bar Ilan University and Herbert Levine from Rice University, share an interest in the dynamics of non-equilibrium systems - a topic that can often shed light on intricate processes such as those found in nature. "This work started as an attempt to generate an interesting example of wave patterns for a book we are writing on the overall field of pattern formation," said Herbert Levine of Rice University's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics. "Wave patterns are one of the general classes of non-equilibrium structures that can form when systems are driven far from equilibrium." Familiar examples include travelling wave patterns that describe the convection of fluid mixtures in response to temperature gradients. However, the researchers were drawn to the oscillatory behaviour displayed by the MIN system - a group of proteins involved in the cell division of bacteria such as E.Coli. "The MIN system is used to demarcate the center of a cell so that it divides into two symmetric daughters," said Levine. "Having a mechanism that allows the wave pattern to 'stretch' without changing all that much is a logical way to deal with this cell growth." By modelling the behaviour, the researchers found that - unlike other examples of pattern forming processes - the process at work here does not appear to be governed by a precise length scale. "Because of this, the waves seem to be more adaptable to the size of the region in which they live," Levine said. "This is an interesting finding from a pure physics perspective, but it may also have some implications from a biological point of view." The result could pave the way for new insights into how proteins are able to self-organize and accurately 'map' the surface of a cell as it grows. And, in principle, this knowledge may one day help in drug development by alerting scientists to ways of interfering with the spread of harmful bacteria. Explore further: Scientists spot genes that make some sarcomas less aggressive More information: David A Kessler et al, Nonlinear self-adapting wave patterns, New Journal of Physics (2016). DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/18/12/122001
News Article | December 5, 2016
A collection of 780,000-year-old edible plants found in Israel is the largest and most diverse in the Levantine corridor linking Africa and Eurasia A tiny grape pip (scale 1mm), left on the ground some 780,000 years ago, is one of more than 9,000 remains of edible plants discovered in an old Stone Age site in Israel on the shoreline of Lake Hula in the northern Jordan valley, dating back to the Acheulian culture from 1.75-0.25 million years ago. The floral collection provides rich testimony of the plant-based diet of our prehistoric ancestors. While around the world remains of Paleolithic plants are scarce, this unique macro-botanical assemblage has allowed researchers from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Bar Ilan University to study the vegetal diet of humans from early-mid-Pleistocene, which is central to understanding the evolution, adaptation and exploitation of the environment by hominins. The findings were recovered during archeological excavations at the waterlogged site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, where the earliest evidence of human-controlled fire in western Asia was discovered in recent years. Prof. Naama Goren-Inbar of the Institute of Archeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who conducted the excavations with colleagues, have long studied findings of hominid occupations in the Levantine Corridor, through which several hominin waves dispersed out of Africa. In a research paper that will be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on December 5, titled "The plant component of an Acheulian diet: a case study from Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel", Prof. Goren-Inbar reveals the discovery of the ancient macrobotanical remains, which for the first time indicate to the rich variety of plant assortments and subsistence opportunities that were available to the early humans on the transition from an African-based to a Eurasian diet. "In recent years we were met with a golden opportunity to reveal numerous remains of fruits, nuts and seeds from trees, shrubs and the lake, alongside the remains of animals and man-made stone tools in one locality," Prof. Goren-Inbar said. Of the remains found on site, Prof. Goren-Inbar and Dr. Yoel Melamed of the Faculty of Life Sciences at Bar Ilan University have identified 55 species of edible plants, including seeds, fruits, nuts, leaves, stems, roots and tubers. The findings, many of them minor in size, have been preserved for hundreds of thousands of years thanks to the damp conditions in the vicinity of the site, said Dr. Melamed. The basalts under and in the site were dated by Ar/Ar and the dates were further confirmed by results of paleomagnetic analyses. "This region is known for the wealth of plants, but what surprised us were the sources of plant food coming from the lake. We found more than 10 species that existed here in prehistoric times but no longer today, such as two types of water nuts, from which seven were edible," explained Dr. Melamed. The site was submerged under the Jordan River and the Hula Lake in conditions of humidity and lack of oxygen, aided by the fast covering of layers of sediments, in which archaeologists also found stone tools and animal fossils. Gesher Benot Ya'aqov is also the place where Prof. Goren-Inbar found the earliest evidence of the use of fire in Eurasia (LINK). "The use of fire is very important because a lot of the plants are toxic or inedible. Using fire, like roasting nuts and roots for example, allows the use of various parts of the plant and increases the diversity of the plant component of the Acheulian diet, alongside aquatic and terrestrial fauna," said Prof. Goren-Inbar. The use of fire and the availability of a diverse range of flora highlight the ability of prehistoric man to adjust to a new environment, to exploit the environment for his own benefit and to colonize beyond Africa.
News Article | December 5, 2016
New Tel Aviv University research suggests that periods of fasting or starvation may significantly shorten the lifespans of both children and their male descendants. The study focused on survivors of a mass famine that took place in the early 1920s in several rural regions of Russia. It was led by Prof. Eugene Kobyliansky of TAU's Sackler School of Medicine and conducted by doctoral student Dmitry Torchinsky of TAU's Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, in collaboration with Dr. Leonid Kalichman of Ben-Gurion University's Department of Physical Therapy and Prof. David Karasik of Bar Ilan University's Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee. Its conclusions were published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. "A variety of experimental and epidemiological studies have tried to propose that intermittent or periodic fasting, like caloric restriction, may slow the aging process and extend lifespans," said Prof. Kobyliansky. "But there is also evidence demonstrating that even moderate caloric restriction may not extend but, on the contrary, can shorten the human lifespan." Past research suggests a strong correlation between telomere dynamics and the processes that determine human aging and lifespan. Telomeres, compound structures at the end of each chromosome that protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration, are the genetic key to longevity. They shorten with every chromosome replication cycle. The team evaluated telomere lengths in a population-based sample comprised of survivors of the mass famine of the early 1920s and in the survivors' descendants, who originated from Chuvashia, a rural area in the mid-Volga region of Russia. In Chuvashia, the proportion of starving inhabitants reached 90% in late March 1922, and mortality among starving peasants reached between 30-50%. The situation only began to improve in April 1923. By the end of that year, the mass famine in Chuvashia was considered over. The researchers arrived at three major discoveries: (1) There were shorter leukocyte telomeres in men born after 1923 after the mass famine ended than in men born before 1922; (2) there was a stable inheritance of shorter telomeres by men born in ensuing generations; and (3) there was an absence of any correlation between shorter telomeres and women born before or after the event. "This study, while demonstrating that starvation has the potential to shorten telomere length, raises several questions," said Prof. Kobyliansky. "Does starvation exert a stronger effect on telomere length in the reproductive cells of adults than in the leukocytes of children? Is starvation-induced telomere shortening a sex-dependent phenomenon? And would fasting regimens exerting beneficial effects be accompanied by telomere shortening in descendants?" The team is currently considering experimental in vivo studies to answer these and other questions. Tel Aviv University (TAU) is inherently linked to the cultural, scientific and entrepreneurial mecca it represents. It is one of the world's most dynamic research centers and Israel's most distinguished learning environment. Its unique-in-Israel multidisciplinary environment is highly coveted by young researchers and scholars returning to Israel from post-docs and junior faculty positions in the US. American Friends of Tel Aviv University (AFTAU) enthusiastically and industriously pursues the advancement of TAU in the US, raising money, awareness and influence through international alliances that are vital to the future of this already impressive institution.
Chao S.-J.,Ilan University
Geotechnical Special Publication | Year: 2010
Geosynthetic reinforced soil retaining structures (GRSRS) have the benefits of low construction cost, hard to decay, and construction convenience. However, GRSRS are composed of backfill materials and reinforcements, which are relatively complex in considering of the soil-structure interaction. The complicated soil-reinforcement interaction and its effects on the behavior of GRSRS need to be investigated comprehensively. This paper follows the processes of cases description and numerical analysis to study the performance of the four major GRSRS built in Ilan County, Taiwan. The purpose of this paper is to validate a relatively reliable and economical technique to be adopted greatly at present in civil engineering practice.
Song J.,Yantai University |
Wang X.,Yantai University |
Chang C.-T.,Ilan University
Journal of Nanomaterials | Year: 2014
Graphene oxide (GO) films with two-dimensional structure were successfully prepared via the modified Hummer method. It is proven that redox method is a promising way to synthesize GO films on a large scale. Comprehensive characterizations of the properties of GO films were conducted. TEM and DFM analyses showed that GO sheets prepared in this study had single and double lamellar layer structure and a thickness of 23 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was selected to measure the crystal structure of GO sheet. Fourier-transform infrared spectra analyzer (FT-IR) was used to certify the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups in GO films. The tests of UV-VIS spectrometer and TGA analyzer indicated that GO sheet possessed excellent optical response and outstanding thermal stability. Elemental analyzer (EA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) analyzed the components synthetic material. Simultaneously, chemical structure of GO sheet was described in this study. Discussion and references for further research on graphene are provided. © 2014 Jianguo Song et al.
Chien Y.R.,Ilan University |
Chen P.Y.,Ilan University
Proceedings - 2014 10th International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, IIH-MSP 2014 | Year: 2014
This paper surveys the impact of different jammers on the Galileo receivers in L1 band. Specifically, we exam the relationship of the sweep-rate of chirp-style jammers with the detection probability when acquiring a Galileo signal. The simulation results show that the relationship between the sweep-rate of the chirp jammers and the resulting impaction of the acquisition process is a non-linear function. With the C/N0 of 45 dB-Hz, the probability of successful acquisition is less than 95% when the sweep rate of the chirp jammer is about 1GHz/sec and the jamming-to-signal ratio (JSR) is above 21 dB, on the other hand, when the jammer type is of the continuous-wave interference, the Galileo receivers can tolerate the JSR of 25 dB. © 2014 IEEE.
News Article | August 26, 2016
The brain is a very complex network, with approximately 100 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses between the neurons. In order to cope with its enormous complexity and to understand how brain function eventually creates the conscious mind, science uses advanced mathematical tools. Ultimately, scientists want to understand how a global phenomenon such as consciousness can emerge from our neuronal network. A team of physicists from Bar Ilan University in Israel led by Professor Shlomo Havlin and Professor Reuven Cohen used network theory in order to deal with this complexity and to determine how the structure of the human cortical network can support complex data integration and conscious activity. The gray area of the human cortex, the neuron cell bodies, were scanned with MRI imaging and used to form 1000 nodes in the cortical network. The white matter of the human cortex, the neuron bundles, were scanned with DTI imaging, forming 15,000 links or edges that connected the network's nodes. In the end of this process, their network was an approximation of the structure of the human cortex. Previous studies have shown that the human cortex is a network with small world properties, which means that it has many local structures and some shortcuts from global structures that connect faraway areas (similar to the difference between local buses and cross-country trains). The cortex also has many hubs, which are nodes that have a high number of links (like central stations), that are also strongly interconnected between themselves, making it easy to travel between the brain's information highways. Nir Lahav, the lead author of the study, says, "In order to examine how the structure of the network can support global emerging phenomena like consciousness, we applied a network analysis called K-shell decomposition. This analysis takes into account the connectivity profile of each node, making it easy to uncover different neighborhoods of connections in the cortical network, which we called shells." The most connected neighborhood in the network is termed the network's nucleus. Nir says, "In the process, we peel off different shells of the network to get the most connected area of the network, the nucleus. Until today, scientists were only interested in the network's nucleus, but we found that these different shells can hold important information about how the brain integrates information from the local levels of each node to the entire global network. For the first time, we could build a comprehensive topological model of the cortex." This topological model reveals that the network's nucleus includes 20 percent of all nodes and that the remaining 80 percent are strongly connected across all of the shells. Interestingly, comparing this topology to that of other networks, such as the internet, noticeable differences are apparent. For instance, in internet network topology, almost 25 percent of the nodes are isolated, meaning they don't connect to any other shells but the nucleus. In the cortical network, however, there are hardly any isolated nodes. It seems that the cortex is much more connected and efficient than the internet. Looking at all the shells of the cortical network, the authors were able to define the network's hierarchical structure and essentially model how information flows within the network. The structure revealed how shells of low connectivity are nodes that typically perform specific functions like face recognition. From there, the data is transferred to higher, more connected shells that enable additional data integration. This reveals regions of the executive network and working memory. With these areas, researchers can focus on task performance, for example. The integrated information then 'travels' to the most connected neighborhood of nodes, the nucleus, which spans across several regions of the cortex. According to Nir, "It's an interconnected collective which is densely linked with itself and can perform global functions due to its great number of global structures, which are widespread across the brain." Which global function might the nucleus serve? The authors suggest the answer is no less than consciousness itself. "The connection between brain activity and consciousness is still a great mystery," says Nir. The main hypothesis today is that in order to create conscious activity, the brain must integrate relevant information from multiple areas of the network. According to this theory, led by Professor Giulio Tononi from the University of Wisconsin, if the level of integrated information crosses a certain limit, a new and emergent state is entered—consciousness. This model suggests that consciousness depends on both information integration and information segregation. Loosely speaking, consciousness is generated by a "central" network structure with a high capacity for information integration, with the contribution of sub-networks that contain specific and segregated information without being part of the central structure. In other words, certain parts of the brain are more involved than others in the conscious complex of the brain, yet other connected parts still contribute, working quietly outside the conscious complex. The authors demonstrate how the nucleus and the shells satisfy all of the requirements of these recent consciousness theories. The shells calculate and contribute to data integration without actually being part of the conscious complex, while the nucleus receives relevant information from all other hierarchies and integrates it to a unified function using its global interconnected structure. The nucleus could thus be this conscious complex, serving as a platform for consciousness to emerge from the network activity. When the authors examined the different regions that make up the nucleus, they revealed that, indeed, these regions have been previously associated with conscious activities. For example, structures within the brain's midline, which form the majority of the network's nucleus, were found to be associated with the stream of consciousness, and some researchers, like Professor Georg Northoff from the University of Ottawa, have suggested that these regions are involved with creating our sense of self. "Now, we need to use this analysis on the whole brain, and not only on the cortex in order to reveal a more exact model of the brain's hierarchy, and later on understand what, exactly, are the neuronal dynamics that lead to such global integration and ultimately consciousness." Explore further: Network theory sheds new light on origins of consciousness More information: Nir Lahav et al. K-shell decomposition reveals hierarchical cortical organization of the human brain, New Journal of Physics (2016). DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/18/8/083013