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Vasavada A.R.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Raj S.M.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery | Year: 2011

It is difficult to completely divide a hard nucleus. Excessive force is required, which may inadvertently lead to capsular bag distortion and cause stress to the zonules. We describe a chop technique that enables the surgeon to consistently achieve complete division of brunescent and black cataracts. Financial Disclosure: Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Source


Pal A.K.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Pal A.K.,Manipal University India | Gajjar D.U.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Vasavada A.R.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center
Medical Mycology | Year: 2014

Melanins are high molecular weight hydrophobic pigments that have been studied for their role in the virulence of fungal pathogens. We investigated the amount and type of melanin in 20 isolates of Aspergillus spp.; A. niger (n = 3), A. flavus (n = 5), A. tamarii (n = 3), A. terreus (n = 3), A. tubingensis (n = 3), A. sydowii (n = 3). Aspergillus spp. were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Extraction of melanin from culture filtrate and fungal biomass was done and followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis of melanin pigment. Ultraviolet (UV), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra analyses confirmed the presence of melanin. The melanin pathway was studied by analyzing the effects of inhibitors; kojic acid, tropolone, phthalide, and tricyclazole. The results indicate that in A. niger and A. tubingensis melanin was found in both culture filtrate and fungal biomass. For A. tamarii and A. flavus melanin was extracted from biomass only, whereas melanin was found only in culture filtrate for A. terreus. A negligible amount of melanin was found in A. sydowii. The maximum amount of melanin from culture filtrate and fungal biomass was found in A. niger and A. tamarrii, respectively. The DOPA (3,4- dihydroxyphenylalanine) pathway produces melanin in A. niger, A. tamarii and A. flavus, whereas the DHN (1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene) pathway produces melanin in A. tubingensis and A. terreus. It can be concluded that the amount and type of melanin in aspergilli largely differ from species to species. © 2013 The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. Source


Shah G.D.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Praveen M.R.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Vasavada A.R.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Vasavada V.A.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery | Year: 2012

Purpose: To evaluate the rotational stability of a toric intraocular lens (IOL) using purpose-designed software and to determine the influence of axial length (AL) and in-the-bag IOL alignment on IOL rotation. Setting: Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. Design: Prospective observational case series. Methods: This study enrolled eyes that had AcrySof toric IOL implantation. The AL was measured using optical coherence biometry or immersion A-scan biometry. Corneal astigmatism was determined by manual keratometry and topography. The IOL alignment was vertical, horizontal, or oblique. Rotational stability was measured using the purpose-designed software, and the mean absolute difference was determined. The effect of AL and IOL alignment on rotational stability was determined 6 months postoperatively. Results: The study evaluated 168 eyes (168 patients). The mean AL was 23.86 mm ± 1.63 (SD), (range 19.50 to 29.03 mm). The median IOL rotation was 0.3 degree from baseline to 1 week, 1.0 degree from 1 week to 1 month, 0.2 degree from 1 to 3 months, and 0.1 degree from 3 to 6 months. The maximum rotation occurred between 1 week and 1 month. There was a strong correlation between AL and IOL rotation at 6 months (r = 0.93, P<.001). The mean absolute difference at 6 months was not significantly different between the 3 axis placement categories when correlated with the rotation (P=.102, analysis of variance). Conclusions: Toric IOL rotation was greater in eyes with a longer AL. Alignment of the IOL in the capsular bag had no influence on rotation. © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Source


Vasavada V.A.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Praveen M.R.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Shah S.K.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Trivedi R.H.,Medical University of South Carolina | Vasavada A.R.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

• PURPOSE: To determine if intraocular infusion of low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) reduces postoperative inflammation in pediatric eyes undergoing cataract surgery with IOL implantation. • DESIGN: Prospective masked randomized controlled trial. • METHODS: SETTING: Private, institutional practice. STUDY POPULATION: Twenty children (40 eyes) undergoing bilateral cataract surgery with IOL implantation were randomized to receive enoxaparin in the intraocular infusion fluid (BSS) (Group I) or not to receive enoxaparin (Group II). The first eye was randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups and the second eye received alternate treatment. OBSERVATION PROCEDURE: Patients were followed up in the first week and 1 and 3 months after surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anterior chamber flare and cells (Hogan's criteria), cell deposits on IOL, posterior synechiae. • RESULTS: One week postoperatively, no eyes had >grade 2 flare/cells. Proportion of eyes with grade 2 cells was higher in eyes that did not receive enoxaparin (Group II: 80% vs Group I: 40%, P = .009). In the first week >10 small cell deposits were noted in the eyes that received enoxaparin (Group I: 20%, Group II: none, P = .005). Large cell deposits first appeared at 1 month in 40% of eyes in Group I and 55% of eyes in Group II (P = .34) and increased at 3 months (60% in both groups, P > .999). Posterior synechiae were seen in 10% of eyes in Group I at 1 month, which persisted at 3 months; no eyes in Group II showed posterior synechiae (P = .14). • CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that there does not seem to be a benefit of using enoxaparin in the infusion fluid with respect to early postoperative inflammation. © 2012 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Kayastha F.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Madhu H.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Vasavada A.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center | Johar K.,Iladevi Cataract and Research Center
Experimental Eye Research | Year: 2014

Lens epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and transdifferentiation are involved in the development of subcapsular cataracts and postoperative capsular opacification (PCO). PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in the proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells. Andrographolide is the main bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata and is known to possess anti-proliferative and anti-migratory activities. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on proliferation and migration induced by growth factors (TGF-β and bFGF) in the lens epithelial cell line, FHL 124. We have also evaluated the role of the PI3K/Akt pathway and its alteration by andrographolide during proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells. The results showed that andrographolide significantly inhibited proliferation in a dose and time dependent manner. The growth factors, TGF-β and bFGF, induced migration of lens epithelial cells, which was lowered by andrographolide. The growth factors also up regulated phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) and Akt (Thr308), which was abolished by simultaneous treatment of andrographolide. Similar changes were also observed with the PI3K inhibitor, LY290042. Our findings suggest that andrographolide reduces proliferation, migration, and phosphorylated Akt levels in lens epithelial cells. Hence andrographolide can be utilized for the prevention of PCO. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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