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Wilkins S.,Monash Institute of Medical Research | Wilkins S.,Monash University | Zhang K.W.,Monash Institute of Medical Research | Mahfuz I.,Monash Institute of Medical Research | And 17 more authors.
PLoS Genetics

Bladder exstrophy epispadias complex (BEEC) is a severe congenital anomaly; however, the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of BEEC remain unclear. TP63, a member of TP53 tumor suppressor gene family, is expressed in bladder urothelium and skin over the external genitalia during mammalian development. It plays a role in bladder development. We have previously shown that p63-/- mouse embryos developed a bladder exstrophy phenotype identical to human BEEC. We hypothesised that TP63 is involved in human BEEC pathogenesis. RNA was extracted from BEEC foreskin specimens and, as in mice, ΔNp63 was the predominant p63 isoform. ΔNp63 expression in the foreskin and bladder epithelium of BEEC patients was reduced. DNA was sequenced from 163 BEEC patients and 285 ethnicity-matched controls. No exon mutations were detected. Sequencing of the ΔNp63 promoter showed 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 4 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms. Indel polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of BEEC. Significantly the sites of indel polymorphisms differed between Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. A 12-base-pair deletion was associated with an increased risk with only Caucasian patients (p = 0.0052 Odds Ratio (OR) = 18.33), whereas a 4-base-pair insertion was only associated with non-Caucasian patients (p = 0.0259 OR = 4.583). We found a consistent and statistically significant reduction in transcriptional efficiencies of the promoter sequences containing indel polymorphisms in luciferase assays. These findings suggest that indel polymorphisms of the ΔNp63 promoter lead to a reduction in p63 expression, which could lead to BEEC. © 2012 Wilkins et al. Source

Ganatra D.A.,Iladevi Cataract and Intraocular Lens Research Center | Kaid Johar S.R.,Iladevi Cataract and Intraocular Lens Research Center | Parmar T.J.,Iladevi Cataract and Intraocular Lens Research Center | Patel A.R.,Iladevi Cataract and Intraocular Lens Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Indian Journal of Medical Research

Background & objectives: Cytoskeletal proteins are deregulated during oxidative stress and cataract formation. However, estrogen which protects against cataract formation and harmful effects of oxidative stress has not been tested on the cytoskeleton of lens epithelial cells (LECs). The current study was undertaken to assess if the protection rendered to LECs by estrogen was mediated by preserving the cytoskeletal proteins. Methods: Oxidative stress was induced by 50 μM of H2O2 in cultured goat LECs (gLECs) and effect of 1 μM 17β-estradiol (E2) was tested. After treatment, morphological analysis of cells was carried out using haematoxylin-eosin staining and cell density was also quantified. Cell viability was determined using Hoechst (Ho), YO-Pro (YP) and propidium iodide (PI). F-actin and vimentin were localized using phalloidin and anti-vimentin antibody, respectively, and viewed under fluorescence microscopy. Vimentin was further analysed at protein level by Western blotting. Results: H2O2 led to increased condensation of nucleus, cell death and apoptosis but these were prevented with pre- and co-treatment of E2 with increase in cell viability (P<0.001). E2 also prevented H2O2 mediated depolymerization of cytoskeleton but was not able to reverse the changes when given after induction of oxidative stress. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that E2 helped in preventing deteriorating effect of H2O2, inhibited cell death, apoptosis and depolymerisation of cytoskeletal proteins in LECs. However, the exact mechanism by which estrogen renders this protection to cytoskeleton of lens epithelial cells remains to be determined. Source

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