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Ikerbasque, the Basque Foundation for Science, is a foundation promoted by the Basque Government in 2007. Wikipedia.

Mateo-Alonso A.,University of the Basque Country | Mateo-Alonso A.,Ikerbasque
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Linear and ribbon-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as acenes and graphene nanoribbons are at the forefront of current investigations, as these graphene "cut outs" possess discrete energy gaps that can be tailored with the number of rings and their arrangements. Pyrene-fused pyrazaacenes are a type of nitrogenated ribbon-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a very high stability. As a matter of fact, ribbon-like pyrene-fused pyrazaacenes with as many as 85 linearly fused aromatic rings have been synthesised with thermal stabilities over 500 °C in air. This review covers most of the synthetic and application aspects of pyrene-fused pyrazaacenes from 1937 to our days, illustrating that pyrene-fused pyrazaacenes are a widely tuneable and a highly stable platform for developing ribbon-like nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for a broad spectrum of applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

Grabowski Sl.J.,Donostia International Physics Center | Grabowski Sl.J.,Ikerbasque
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations were carried out on complexes of ZH 4, ZFH3 and ZF4 (Z = C, Si and Ge) molecules with HCN, LiCN and Cl- species acting as Lewis bases through nitrogen centre or chlorine ion. Z-Atoms in these complexes usually act as Lewis acid centres forming σ-hole bonds with Lewis bases. Such noncovalent interactions may adopt a name of tetrel bonds since they concern the elements of the group IV. There are exceptions for complexes of CH4 and CF 4, as well as for the F4Si⋯NCH complex where the tetrel bond is not formed. The energetic and geometrical parameters of the complexes were analyzed and numerous correlations between them were found. The Quantum Theory of 'Atoms in Molecules' and Natural Bonds Orbital (NBO) method used here should deepen the understanding of the nature of the tetrel bond. An analysis of the electrostatic potential surfaces of the interacting species is performed. The electron charge redistribution, being the result of the tetrel bond formation, is the same as that of the SN2 reaction. The energetic and geometrical parameters of the complexes analyzed here correspond to different stages of the SN2 process. This journal is © 2014 the Owner Societies.

Schive H.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Chiueh T.,National Taiwan University | Broadhurst T.,University of the Basque Country | Broadhurst T.,Ikerbasque
Nature Physics | Year: 2014

The conventional cold-particle interpretation of dark matter (known as 'cold dark matter', or CDM) still lacks laboratory support and struggles with the basic properties of common dwarf galaxies, which have surprisingly uniformcentralmasses and shallow density profiles1-5. In contrast, galaxies predicted by CDM extend to much lower masses, with steeper, singular profiles6-9. This tension motivates cold, wavelike dark matter ( DM) composed of a non-relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate, so the uncertainty principle counters gravity below a Jeans scale10-12. Here we achieve cosmological simulations of this quantum state at unprecedentedly high resolution capable of resolving dwarf galaxies, with only one free parameter, mB, the boson mass. We demonstrate the large-scale structure is indistinguishable from CDM, as desired, but diers radically inside galaxies where quantum interference forms solitonic cores surrounded by extended haloes of fluctuating density granules.These results allowus to determine m B=(8.0C+1.8 -2.0×10-23 eV using stellar phase-space distributions in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Denser, more massive solitons are predicted for Milky Way sized galaxies, providing a substantial seed to help explain early spheroid formation. The onset of galaxy formation is substantially delayed relative to CDM, appearing at redshift z≲13 in our simulations. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Villa F.,Ikerbasque
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014

As societal demand for food, water and other life-sustaining resources grows, the science of ecosystem services (ES) is seen as a promising tool to improve our understanding, and ultimately the management, of increasingly uncertain supplies of critical goods provided or supported by natural ecosystems. This promise, however, is tempered by a relatively primitive understanding of the complex systems supporting ES, which as a result are often quantified as static resources rather than as the dynamic expression of human-natural systems. This article attempts to pinpoint the minimum level of detail that ES science needs to achieve in order to usefully inform the debate on environmental securities, and discusses both the state of the art and recent methodological developments in ES in this light. We briefly review the field of ES accounting methods and list some desiderata that we deem necessary, reachable and relevant to address environmental securities through an improved science of ES. We then discuss a methodological innovation that, while only addressing these needs partially, can improve our understanding of ES dynamics in data-scarce situations. The methodology is illustrated and discussed through an application related to water security in the semi-arid landscape of the Great Ruaha river of Tanzania.

Marzari N.,Theory and Simulation of Materials THEOS | Mostofi A.A.,Imperial College London | Yates J.R.,University of Oxford | Souza I.,University of the Basque Country | And 2 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2012

The electronic ground state of a periodic system is usually described in terms of extended Bloch orbitals, but an alternative representation in terms of localized "Wannier functions" was introduced by Gregory Wannier in 1937. The connection between the Bloch and Wannier representations is realized by families of transformations in a continuous space of unitary matrices, carrying a large degree of arbitrariness. Since 1997, methods have been developed that allow one to iteratively transform the extended Bloch orbitals of a first-principles calculation into a unique set of maximally localized Wannier functions, accomplishing the solid-state equivalent of constructing localized molecular orbitals, or "Boys orbitals" as previously known from the chemistry literature. These developments are reviewed here, and a survey of the applications of these methods is presented. This latter includes a description of their use in analyzing the nature of chemical bonding, or as a local probe of phenomena related to electric polarization and orbital magnetization. Wannier interpolation schemes are also reviewed, by which quantities computed on a coarse reciprocal-space mesh can be used to interpolate onto much finer meshes at low cost, and applications in which Wannier functions are used as efficient basis functions are discussed. Finally the construction and use of Wannier functions outside the context of electronic-structure theory is presented, for cases that include phonon excitations, photonic crystals, and cold-atom optical lattices. © 2012 American Physical Society.

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