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London, United Kingdom

Ikawa was a town located in Miyoshi District, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan.As of 2003, the town had an estimated population of 5,044 and a density of 113.35 persons per km². The total area was 44.5 km².On March 1, 2006, Ikawa, along with the towns of Ikeda, Mino and Yamashiro, and the villages of Higashiiyayama and Nishiiyayama , was merged to create the city of Miyoshi. Wikipedia.

Fukunishi N.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Katoh I.,Yamanashi University | Tomimori Y.,Ikawa | Tomimori Y.,Oriental Yeast Co. | And 6 more authors.
Neoplasia | Year: 2010

The expression of p63 (TP63/p51) occurs in the basal cells of stratified epithelia and is strongly enhanced at the early stages of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck, skin, cervix, and others. We analyzed a promoter/ enhancer region (2kΔN) that drives the predominant expression of ΔNp63 for sensitivity to Smad signaling pathways. Reporter assays in HepG2 cells showed a moderate activation of 2kΔN by Smad2 and IκB kinase α (IKKα), partners of the newly identified keratinocyte-specific transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling, but not by other Smad molecules. In A431 cells, 2kΔN was activated by Smad2 and IKKα, for which a Smad binding element (SMD2) at-204 was essential. Binding of Smad2 to the chromosomal SMD2 site was detectable. The association of Smad2 with IKKα was evident in the nucleus of A431, accounting for the enhancement of ΔNp63 expression by TGF-β. Moreover, both ΔNp63 and IKKα were necessary to maintain the noninvasive phenotype of this cell line. FaDu, an invasive, Smad4-deficient SCC, also allowed 2kΔN transactivation by transfected Smad2 in the presence of endogenous IKKα. Reflecting the lack of chromosomal SMD2-Smad2 association and the absence of nuclear IKKα, however, endogenous ΔNp63 was not controlled by TGF-β or IKKα in FaDu. SCC tissue arrays showed nuclear accumulation of IKKα and p63 intensification in well-differentiated noninvasive lesions. This study indicates that p63 is a target gene of the proposed keratinocyte-specific TGF-β signal pathway for suppression of the malignant conversion of SCC. © Neoplasia Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

Kubota Y.,Osaka University | Kubota Y.,Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion | Maruyama K.,Osaka University | Maruyama K.,Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging | Year: 2010

Objective: To examine the reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall for estimating dietary vitamin intakes by middle-aged Japanese men and women. Methods and Results: The subjects were 132 men and 130 women aged 40-69 years, selected from participants in cardiovascular risk surveys conducted in 4 communities. The reproducibility of the 24-hour dietary recall was tested by comparing nutrient and food intake for two recalls conducted on the same season 1 year apart, designated as recalls 1 and 2. Differences in mean values between two recalls were tested using analysis of variance, and Spearman rank correlation coefficients for the two recalls were calculated for nutrient and food intakes. Mean values of energy and vitamins for both sexes were generally similar for the two recalls. The reproducibility of recall by men was high for vitamin B2, folate, pantothenic acid, and vitamin C and by women for vitamin B2, moderate by men for vitamins A, E, K, B1, B6 and niacin, and by women for vitamins A, E, K, B1, B6 and niacin, folate, pantothenic acid and vitamin C, and low by both men and women for vitamins D and B12. T. The reproducibility during 1985-1999 was generally lower than that of 1973-1984, but that for folate, pantothenic acid and vitamin C remained to be moderate in 1984-1999. Conclusions: Although the reproducibility of 24-hour dietary recall varies among vitamins, moderate and sustained reproducibility was observed for folate, vitamin C and pantothenic acid.

Ashikaga K.,Hokkaido Research Organization | Tamaki H.,Hokkaido Animal Research Center | Tamaki H.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Tanaka T.,Hokkaido Research Organization | And 3 more authors.
Grassland Science | Year: 2010

Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) is the most important perennial forage grass grown in parts of Canada, USA, the Nordic countries of Europe and Hokkaido, Japan. Improvement of its nutritive value through breeding should result in enhanced livestock productivity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of genotype × maturity stage interaction (G × M), genotype × harvest time on sunny day interaction (G × TS) and genotype × harvest time on cloudy day interaction (G × TC) for the nutritive value of the first crop of timothy. Fifteen early-maturing clones of timothy were used to evaluate G × M and 13 clones were used to evaluate G × TS and TC in Kunneppu, Hokkaido in 2005 by analyzing the nutritive value of the first crops using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Contents of low-digestible fiber (Ob) and water-soluble carbohydrate and the ratio of Ob to organic cell wall measured at early heading significantly correlated with their measurements at full heading stage, with non-significant effects of G × M. These traits also showed a significant correlation between morning and evening in both sunny and cloudy weather conditions, with non-significant effects of G × TS and TC. We conclude that the relative ranking of genotypes at different maturity stages from early to full heading stage and at different times within a day should be consistent for the required traits, and that selection for these traits at any stage of heading and any time of day should permit effective improvement of the nutritive value of timothy only if the plants are harvested at about the same time (within 1 h). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Ikawa | Date: 2011-11-01

One embodiment of the invention relates to apparatus (

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