Chiba, Japan
Chiba, Japan

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Takeda K.,Hokkaido University | Ikenaka Y.,Hokkaido University | Ikenaka Y.,North West University South Africa | Tanikawa T.,Ikari Corporation | And 4 more authors.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2016

Roof rats (Rattus rattus) live mainly in human habitats. Heavy use of rodenticides, such as warfarin, has led to the development of drug resistance, making pest control difficult. There have been many reports regarding mutations of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), the target enzyme of warfarin, in resistant rats. However, it has been suggested there are other mechanisms of warfarin resistance. To confirm these possibilities, closed colonies of warfarin-susceptible roof rats (S) and resistant rats from Tokyo (R) were established, and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of warfarin in rats from both colonies was investigated. R rats had low levels of warfarin in serum and high clearance activity. These rats can rapidly metabolize warfarin by hydroxylation. The levels of accumulation in the organs were lower than those of S rats. R rats administered warfarin showed high expression levels of CYP2B, 2C, and 3A, which play roles in warfarin hydroxylation, and may explain the high clearance ability of R rats. The mechanism of warfarin resistance in roof rats from Tokyo involved not only mutation of VKOR but also high clearance ability due to high levels of CYP2B, 2C and 3A expression possibly induced by warfarin. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Tokiwa T.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Harunari T.,Ikari Corporation | Tanikawa T.,Ikari Corporation | Komatsu N.,Civil International Corporation | And 8 more authors.
Parasitology International | Year: 2012

We conducted a pilot survey of genetic variation of A. cantonensis using small subunit (SSU) ribosomal (r) RNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI) gene sequences. Two distinct SSU genotypes (G1 and G2) were identified among 17 individual A. cantonensis worms from 17 different geographical localities in Japan, Mainland China, Taiwan, and Thailand. The partial coxI sequences were determined for 83 worms from 18 different geographical localities from Japan, Mainland China, Taiwan, and Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed eight distinct coxI haplotypes (ac1 to ac8). In 16 out of 18 localities, only a single coxI haplotype was found. However, in two localities, two coxI haplotypes coexisted. The common haplotypes found were: haplotype ac1 (Tokyo, Chiba, Kanagawa, Amamioshima Island, and Taichung), haplotype ac2 (Ishikawa, Shenzhen, and Lianjiang), haplotype ac5 (the Okinawa and the Ogasawara Islands), and haplotype ac7 (Miyagi, Aichi, and Kanagawa). Each of these regions is separated from the others by high mountain ranges or oceans. In addition, the lower genetic variation and particular geographical distribution of A. cantonensis in each location could indicate a founder effect, which may have resulted from multiple independent origins, and suggests that haplotypes migrated from endemic areas via human-related transportation. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Ikari Corporation, North West University South Africa and Hokkaido University
Type: | Journal: Pesticide biochemistry and physiology | Year: 2016

Roof rats (Rattus rattus) live mainly in human habitats. Heavy use of rodenticides, such as warfarin, has led to the development of drug resistance, making pest control difficult. There have been many reports regarding mutations of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR), the target enzyme of warfarin, in resistant rats. However, it has been suggested there are other mechanisms of warfarin resistance. To confirm these possibilities, closed colonies of warfarin-susceptible roof rats (S) and resistant rats from Tokyo (R) were established, and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of warfarin in rats from both colonies was investigated. R rats had low levels of warfarin in serum and high clearance activity. These rats can rapidly metabolize warfarin by hydroxylation. The levels of accumulation in the organs were lower than those of S rats. R rats administered warfarin showed high expression levels of CYP2B, 2C, and 3A, which play roles in warfarin hydroxylation, and may explain the high clearance ability of R rats. The mechanism of warfarin resistance in roof rats from Tokyo involved not only mutation of VKOR but also high clearance ability due to high levels of CYP2B, 2C and 3A expression possibly induced by warfarin.


Koizumi N.,National Institute of Infectious Disease | Nakajima C.,Hokkaido University | Harunari T.,Ikari Corporation | Tanikawa T.,Ikari Corporation | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

We developed a new loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect rrs, a 16S rRNA gene of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in urine. The method enables detection of two leptospiral cells per reaction mixture following boiling of urine specimens. The sensitivity of this method is higher than that of culture or of flaB nested PCR. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Eisenberg T.,Landesbetrieb Hessisches Landeslabor | Imaoka K.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Kimura M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Glaeser S.P.,Justus Liebig University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2016

An indole-, oxidase-and catalase-negative, non-motile bacterium, strain OGS16T, was isolated from an oral swab of a feral black rat (Rattus rattus) in 2007 in Japan. It stained Gram-negative and had pleomorphic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming cells. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, strain OGS16T was assigned to the genus Streptobacillus, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99.3, 99.0, 98.6 and 95.5 % to the type strains of Streptobacillus moniliformis, Streptobacillus notomytis, Streptobacillus felis and Streptobacillus hongkongensis, respectively. Strain OGS16T could also be differentiated clearly from other species of the genus Streptobacillus by rpoB, groEL and recA nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analysis. DNA-DNA relatedness as obtained by average nucleotide identity was 89.10 % between strain OGS16T and Streptobacillus moniliformis DSM 12112T. Chemotaxonomic and physiological data for strain OGS16T were congruent with results for other closely related members of the family Leptotrichiaceae, represented by highly similar enzyme profiles and fatty acid patterns. MALDI-TOF MS analysis also proved suitable in discriminating strain OGS16T unequivocally from all currently described taxa of the genus Streptobacillus. On the basis of these data, we propose the novel species Streptobacillus ratti sp. Nov., with the type strain OGS16T (=JCM 31098T=DSM 101843T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain is 25.9 mol% and the genome size is 1.50 Mbp. © 2016 IUMS.


PubMed | Agri Food and Biosciences Institute of Northern Ireland, Ikari Corporation, Center for Research, Civil International Corporation and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2015

Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors.


Nasu Y.,Nakado | Sakamaki Y.,Kagoshima University | Tomioka Y.,IKARI Corporation
Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity | Year: 2016

The immature stages of Oecia oecophila (Staudinger, 1876) (Schistonoeidae) are described and illustrated for the first time. The biological notes are provided, and the phylogenetic relationships of the family discussed. Copyright © 2016, National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK) and Korea National Arboretum (KNA). Production and hosting by Elsevier. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.


Tanaka K.D.,Hokkaido University | Kawai Y.K.,Hokkaido University | Ikenaka Y.,Hokkaido University | Harunari T.,Ikari Corporation | And 6 more authors.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2012

Warfarin is commonly used worldwide as a rodenticide. It inhibits blood coagulation by inhibiting vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase (VKOR) activity leading to hemorrhage. However, it has been reported that repeated or long-term treatment with warfarin results in resistance emerging in wild rodents. Such resistance may explain why it is difficult to control rodents in many regions in Japan. In this report, we studied mutations in the VKOR gene (including the VKOR complex subunit 1 (VKORC1)), while also analyzing VKOR and clotting factor activity in black rats (Rattus rattus) in order to understand better the mechanism of warfarin resistance in this species.We sequenced the VKORC1 gene from 275 rats living in the wild in Japan. We found several types of novel base substitutions, some of which conferred warfarin resistance.There was no difference in coagulation times between warfarin-sensitive and resistant rats measured under physiological conditions. However, after warfarin administration, no effect was noted in warfarin-resistant rats, although a prolonged coagulation time was noted in warfarin-sensitive rats.We also determined the kinetic differences in hepatic microsomal VKOR-dependent activity between warfarin-resistant and sensitive rats. Warfarin-resistant rats showed 2-3-fold lower V max/. K m values than did sensitive rats. In addition, we report that resistant rats found in the Tokyo area had a VKOR activity which was poorly inhibited by warfarin.Finally, we conclude that reduced VKOR activity and warfarin resistance in the Japanese black rat might be due to mutations in the VKORC1 gene. However, further study is needed to clarify how such rats can maintain adequate vitamin K-dependent clotting factor levels, while simultaneously exhibiting low VKOR activity and warfarin resistance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..


Tokiwa T.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Harunari T.,Ikari Corporation | Tanikawa T.,Ikari Corporation | Akao N.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Ohta N.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University
Parasitology International | Year: 2011

We collected 24 brown rats, Rattus norvegicus, in Kanagawa Prefecture in Japan and found one rat harboring a dioctophymatid nematode. A single male and a female worm were recovered from the abdominal cavity and were identified as Dioctophyme renale based on morphologic features and a BLAST DNA sequence analysis. We describe the morphological features of the adult worms and eggs from this extremely rare case of D. renale infection in a brown rat. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


PubMed | Ikari Corporation and Hokkaido University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of environmental research and public health | Year: 2017

Although Japan has been considered to have little lead (Pb) pollution in modern times, the actual pollution situation is unclear. The present study aims to investigate the extent of Pb pollution and to identify the pollution sources in Japan using stable Pb isotope analysis with kidneys of wild rats. Wild brown (

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