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Kyoto, Japan

Kitaoka S.,Health Evaluation Center | Mashiba S.,Ikagaku Co. | Akao M.,National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center | Abe M.,National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis | Year: 2012

Aim: While smoking cessation (SC) leads to a reduction of cardiovascular events, atherogenic biomarkers specifically connected with cigarette smoking and SC are unknown. Circulating levels of oxidatively modified low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) are associated with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases. Recently, two novel, oxidatively modified LDL markers, serum amyloid A-LDL (SAA-LDL) and α1-antitrypsin-LDL (AT-LDL), were identified; however, the significance of SAA-LDL and AT-LDL as cardiovascular risk markers is unknown. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 243 patients, and determined serum levels of SAA-LDL and AT-LDL. Results: Both serum levels of SAA-LDL and AT-LDL were significantly increased in current compared to non-current smokers. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the current smoking status and duration of smoking were strong independent determinants of the AT-LDL level. In contrast, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was the strongest determinant of the SAA-LDL level. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the current smoking status was most closely associated with the AT-LDL level. Successful SC employing a 12-week program significantly increased the body mass index and serum levels of obesity-related markers. Notably, successful SC significantly decreased levels of AT-LDL, but not those of SAA-LDL. Conclusions: The present study provides the first evidence for the distinct characteristics of two novel, oxidatively modified LDL markers, SAA-LDL and AT-LDL. In contrast to SAA-LDL, an inflammatory marker, AT-LDL serves as a marker of smoking-specific oxidative stress. These findings warrant further investigations to clarify if AT-LDL provides a key link between smoking and cardiovascular diseases.

Ueno H.,University of Miyazaki | Saitoh Y.,University of Miyazaki | Mizuta M.,University of Miyazaki | Shiiya T.,University of Miyazaki | And 4 more authors.
Obesity Research and Clinical Practice | Year: 2011

Objective: The benefits of fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist, against cardiovascular risk factors have been established. To clarify the underlying mechanisms of these benefits, we examined the effects of fenofibrate on insulin resistance, hypertension, inflammation, oxidative stress and coagulation markers in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Eleven Japanese patients with metabolic syndrome underwent physical examinations and blood tests before and after treatment with fenofibrate 200 mg daily for 8 weeks. Results: Fenofibrate significantly decreased systolic blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, serum insulin, insulin resistance (calculated from the homeostasis model assessment), total cholesterol, triglyceride, remnant-like particles cholesterol, uric acid, D-dimer, fibrinogen, serum amyloid A/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apoA1/LDL levels. It also significantly increased levels of high molecular weight adiponectin, thrombomodulin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in these patients. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose and thrombin-antithrombin complex levels did not change. Limitation: Small sample size. Conclusion: Short-term fenofibrate administration not only improved lipid profiles, but also ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertension and oxidative stress markers in patients with metabolic syndrome, suggesting that fenofibrate can decrease the risk of arteriosclerosis through various pathways. © 2011 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Honda H.,Showa University | Ueda M.,Ikagaku Co. | Kojima S.,Ikagaku Co. | Mashiba S.,Ikagaku Co. | And 4 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2012

Background and objectives: Here, we assessed the impact of oxidized high-density lipoprotein (oxHDL), dysfunctional HDL, on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in prevalent HD patients and compared oxHDL to interleukin-6 (IL-6), a strong predictor of CVD events in HD patients. Design, setting, participants, and measurements: This prospective study examined a cohort of prevalent HD patients (n=412). Blood samples were obtained at baseline to measure lipids, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), IL-6, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase, adiponectin, and oxHDL. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was assessed at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), body mass index, and geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI). After the baseline assessment, study patients were prospectively followed up (mean observational period, 40 months). Results: At baseline, patients with high oxHDL had a worse nutritional state and higher HDL-cholesterol (HDL-chol), ICAM-1, and adiponectin levels and a higher oxHDL/HDL-chol ratio than low oxHDL patients. A combination of high oxHDL and high IL-6 was significantly associated with increased CIMT at baseline and a larger increase in CIMT at 3-year follow-up. High oxHDL did not predict all-cause mortality; however, it was significantly associated with CVD-related mortality and composite CVD events, particularly with concomitant high IL-6. These associations were confirmed in multivariate Cox hazard models adjusted with confounding variables. Conclusions: High oxHDL, particularly with concomitant high IL-6, may be associated with an increased risk of CVD events and CVD-related mortality in prevalent HD patients. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Okura T.,Ehime University | Jotoku M.,Ehime University | Irita J.,Ehime University | Enomoto D.,Ehime University | And 10 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology | Year: 2010

Background: Serum cystatin C is not only a marker of renal function but also acts as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular damage, heart failure, and death. It is known that the initiation and progression of these cardiovascular events contributes to renal dysfunction and chronic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between cystatin C and proinflammatory cytokines. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with essential hypertension participated in the study, which involved measuring proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and C reactive protein (CRP). Results: Positive correlations were detected between cystatin C and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.503, p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (r = -0.246, p = 0.034), and pulse pressure (r = -0.295, p = 0.010). In contrast, serum creatinine correlated only with eGFR (r = -0.755, p < 0.001) and eGFR correlated only with age (r = -0.339, p = 0.001) and not with the other clinical parameters, whereas cystatin C also correlated with log natural (ln) IL-6 (r = -0.247, p = 0.033) and ln TNF-α (r = -0.405, p < 0.001) but not with CRP (r = -0.188, p = 0.108). In contrast, plasma creatinine and eGFR did not correlate with any of these proinflammatory cytokines. Stepwise regression analysis showed that ln TNF-α, eGFR and pulse pressure were independent determinants of serum cystatin C concentration. Conclusion: This study showed that cystatin C is a marker of inflammation as well as renal function. © 2010 Japanese Society of Nephrology.

Kotani K.,Clinical Research Institute | Kotani K.,Jichi Medical University | Kotani K.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Sakane N.,Clinical Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

Background: Oxidized high-density lipoprotein (oxHDL) has reduced capacity for cholesterol efflux and some of other anti-atherogenic properties of HDL, but the role of oxHDL in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease has not been fully demonstrated. This study investigated the association of oxHDL with plasma glucose (PG) and the other atherosclerotic risk variables in non-diabetic dyslipidemic subjects. Methods: Conventional atherosclerotic markers and LDL particle size (LDL-PS), as determined by gel electrophoresis, were measured in 155 non-diabetic subjects (mean age of 57. years) with dyslipidemia. Serum oxHDL levels were quantified using an antibody against oxidized human apoA-I in a sandwich ELISA format. Results: Multiple regression analysis adjusted for possible confounders revealed that HDL-cholesterol was independently, significantly and positively correlated with LDL-PS and oxHDL. By multiple regression analysis, oxHDL was independently, significantly and positively correlated with fasting PG (. β=. 0.19, P=. 0.01). Subjects in the highest PG tertile group had approximately 30% higher oxHDL levels than the lowest PG tertile group. Conclusions: These results suggest that high PG levels may contribute to the HDL oxidation, irrespective of HDL-cholesterol levels, even in non-diabetic subjects with dyslipidemia, and that the measurement of oxHDL may be a useful marker of dysfunctional HDL. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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