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Al-Ifan B.M.,IIUM
2013 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for the Muslim World, ICT4M 2013 | Year: 2013

It is accepted that a contract in E-commerce can be formed by two acts, speech act and written act, Although modern means of communication such as phones and e-mail, the Islamic jurisprudence have come with clear provisions, which can be guided through it to the Islamic provision in contract formation through these acts, where the contracting parties shall not meet in one place. In this paper first we will discuss the provision of Islam in forming contracts in E-commerce through speech act media followed by the provisions of Islam in contract formation by written act media © 2013 IEEE. Source

Qabajeh L.K.,University of Malaya | Kiah M.L.M.,University of Malaya | Qabajeh M.M.,IIUM
Security and Communication Networks | Year: 2013

An essential problem in mobile ad hoc networks is finding an efficient and secure route from a source to an intended destination. In this paper, we have proposed a new model of routing protocol named ARANz, which is an extension of the original Authenticated Routing for Ad Hoc Networks (ARAN). ARANz adopts the authentication methods used with ARAN and aims to increase security, achieve robustness and solve the single point of failure and attack problems by introducing multiple local certificate authority servers. Additionally, via dealing with the network as zones and using restricted directional flooding, our new model exhibits better scalability and performance. Through simulation, we evaluated ARANz and compared it with the original ARAN as well as Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector. Simulation results show that ARANz is able to effectively discover secure routes within relatively large networks with large number of mobile nodes, while maintaining the minimum packet routing load. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Muthalif A.G.A.,IIUM | Langley R.S.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012

This work presents active control of high-frequency vibration using skyhook dampers. The choice of the damper gain and its optimal location is crucial for the effective implementation of active vibration control. In vibration control, certain sensor/actuator locations are preferable for reducing structural vibration while using minimum control effort. In order to perform optimisation on a general built-up structure to control vibration, it is necessary to have a good modelling technique to predict the performance of the controller. The present work exploits the hybrid modelling approach, which combines the finite element method (FEM) and statistical energy analysis (SEA) to provide efficient response predictions at medium to high frequencies. The hybrid method is implemented here for a general network of plates, coupled via springs, to allow study of a variety of generic control design problems. By combining the hybrid method with numerical optimisation using a genetic algorithm, optimal skyhook damper gains and locations are obtained. The optimal controller gain and location found from the hybrid method are compared with results from a deterministic modelling method. Good agreement between the results is observed, whereas results from the hybrid method are found in a significantly reduced amount of time. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lai W.K.,TAR College | Khan I.M.,IIUM | Poh G.S.,MIMOS
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012

Image segmentation is one of the fundamental and important steps that is needed to prepare an image for further processing in many computer vision applications. Over the last few decades, many image segmentation methods have been proposed, as accurate image segmentation is vitally important for many image, video and computer vision applications. A common approach is to look at the grey level colours of the image to perform multi-level-thresholding. The ability to quantify and compare the resulting segmented images is of vital importance even though it can be a major challenge. One measure used here computes the total distances of the pixels to its centroid for each region to provide a quantifiable measure of the segmented images. We also suggest an improved Zhang's entropy measure for image segmentation based on computing the entropy of the image and segmented regions. In this paper, we will present the results from both of these approaches. © 2012 The Authors. Source

Prawoto Y.,University of Technology Malaysia | Djuansjah J.R.P.,University of Technology Malaysia | Shaffiar N.B.,IIUM
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2012

This is a technical note highlighting a method on how to perform averaging the elastic properties. The drawback of the traditional rule of mixture (ROM) is briefly discussed. The technique considers the effect of morphology based on classical continuum mechanics, taking the advantages of fracture mechanics. As an example, a model that simulates the possible configuration of constituting phases commonly found in austenite microstructure is chosen. The result is compared with traditional ROM. It is found that although similar, the result is better due to the stress amplification that is accommodated in the method, unlike the traditional ROM, which merely considers only the volumetric ratio. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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