2013 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for the Muslim World, ICT4M 2013 | Year: 2013
It is accepted that a contract in E-commerce can be formed by two acts, speech act and written act, Although modern means of communication such as phones and e-mail, the Islamic jurisprudence have come with clear provisions, which can be guided through it to the Islamic provision in contract formation through these acts, where the contracting parties shall not meet in one place. In this paper first we will discuss the provision of Islam in forming contracts in E-commerce through speech act media followed by the provisions of Islam in contract formation by written act media © 2013 IEEE.
Mabrouk A.,IIUM |
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, ISCE | Year: 2011
One of the main objectives of the widely used MPEG4 audio standard was to provide a technical framework for audio coding suited for low bit rate wireless communication. All variants of the MPEG4 audio coders use a Linear Prediction (LP) filtering system. The LP filter coefficients are calculated based on the Line Spectral Frequencies (LSF) parameters due to their excellent quantization characteristics. This work presents a hardware architecture that implements the conversion of the LSF parameters into the LP coefficients and the LP synthesis filter. The LSF conversion module is based on a simplified algorithm that cuts down on many arithmetic operations and thus results in a low gate count module. The architecture was implemented on Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA platform for performance measurement and verification. Module speeds are reported in terms of the number of clock cycles taken by each of their sub-modules to show suitability for real-time applications. Synthesis results are reported using various degrees of parallelism to explore the trade-off between gate count and time delay. Fixed-point implementation was carried out in a way that kept the original precision of the LSF parameters and input data in order to mitigate the severe impact of the tight bit rate budget. © 2011 IEEE.
Faridi A.,IIUM |
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2015
Context awareness is an important element in the pervasive and ubiquitous computing. It involves the ability of the computing system to be aware of the context in which a particular target user is experiencing. This involves the location in which the target is, the activity that the target is doing, the identity of that target and the time in which the activity occur. Once these two elements are known we propose the use of HMM to predict and infer the context of the user. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Qabajeh L.K.,University of Malaya |
Kiah M.L.M.,University of Malaya |
Security and Communication Networks | Year: 2013
An essential problem in mobile ad hoc networks is finding an efficient and secure route from a source to an intended destination. In this paper, we have proposed a new model of routing protocol named ARANz, which is an extension of the original Authenticated Routing for Ad Hoc Networks (ARAN). ARANz adopts the authentication methods used with ARAN and aims to increase security, achieve robustness and solve the single point of failure and attack problems by introducing multiple local certificate authority servers. Additionally, via dealing with the network as zones and using restricted directional flooding, our new model exhibits better scalability and performance. Through simulation, we evaluated ARANz and compared it with the original ARAN as well as Ad Hoc On-demand Distance Vector. Simulation results show that ARANz is able to effectively discover secure routes within relatively large networks with large number of mobile nodes, while maintaining the minimum packet routing load. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Muthalif A.G.A.,IIUM |
Langley R.S.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2012
This work presents active control of high-frequency vibration using skyhook dampers. The choice of the damper gain and its optimal location is crucial for the effective implementation of active vibration control. In vibration control, certain sensor/actuator locations are preferable for reducing structural vibration while using minimum control effort. In order to perform optimisation on a general built-up structure to control vibration, it is necessary to have a good modelling technique to predict the performance of the controller. The present work exploits the hybrid modelling approach, which combines the finite element method (FEM) and statistical energy analysis (SEA) to provide efficient response predictions at medium to high frequencies. The hybrid method is implemented here for a general network of plates, coupled via springs, to allow study of a variety of generic control design problems. By combining the hybrid method with numerical optimisation using a genetic algorithm, optimal skyhook damper gains and locations are obtained. The optimal controller gain and location found from the hybrid method are compared with results from a deterministic modelling method. Good agreement between the results is observed, whereas results from the hybrid method are found in a significantly reduced amount of time. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hakiem N.,IIUM |
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology | Year: 2013
This paper presents the development of a one-to-many reversible mapping mechanism simulation for IPv6 address generation. The aim of this mechanism is to improve IPv6 addresses generation in terms of privacy and security in an enterprise local area network (LAN). Each time a user accesses a network, a dynamic IPv6 address is assigned via the DHCPv6 server. The dynamic address (one-to-many mapping) is to protect a user from unwanted behavior analysis attempting to exploit IPv6 addresses, thus protecting user privacy. However, the dynamic address can be uniquely linked to the user (many-to-one mapping) if the need arises. The one-to-many reversible mapping is generated dynamically using Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode of operation of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Software simulation is developed using the software engineering waterfall model and a Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagram as a notation. The results show that the mechanism simulates well for IPv6 address generation and IPv6 address owner identification. The one-to-many mapping may be incorporated into DHCPv6 software and many-to-one mapping may be implemented as a complement of local area network monitoring software. © 2005 - 2013 JATIT & LLS. All rights reserved.
Hilmy I.,IIUM |
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014
Homemade Friction Stir Welding (FSW) Tool utilizing conventional milling machine has been developed. The FSW tool made from mild steel was designed and fabricated. Experimental investigation of FSW process of the Aluminum alloy specimens to observe its mechanical performances was performed. To evaluate its performance, hardness test, tensile test as well as visual inspections of the welding result were performed. Hardness number in the welding region was measured about 40-60% lower than the base metal, and heat affected zone region. The tensile test result varies with maximum 100 MPa. The imperfection of final form of metal due to the stirring mechanism was inspected. The presence of void/crack at cross-section of the welded specimen was observed. It was found that by applying suitable configuration, the use of mild steel as the FSW tool was reasonable for performing FSW process. It was concluded that, using a relatively low cost FSW tool, a quite satisfactory result of welding performance was achieved. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Prawoto Y.,University of Technology Malaysia |
Djuansjah J.R.P.,University of Technology Malaysia |
Computational Materials Science | Year: 2012
This is a technical note highlighting a method on how to perform averaging the elastic properties. The drawback of the traditional rule of mixture (ROM) is briefly discussed. The technique considers the effect of morphology based on classical continuum mechanics, taking the advantages of fracture mechanics. As an example, a model that simulates the possible configuration of constituting phases commonly found in austenite microstructure is chosen. The result is compared with traditional ROM. It is found that although similar, the result is better due to the stress amplification that is accommodated in the method, unlike the traditional ROM, which merely considers only the volumetric ratio. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alawi M.A.,IIUM |
Saeed R.A.,IIUM |
2012 International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering, ICCCE 2012 | Year: 2012
Dead spot and out of coverage problem are serious problems especially in the rural and suburban areas where the network infrastructure is not deployed. In this paper, a new end to end multi hop relay scheme for vehicular communication is proposed to extend the coverage or/and relaxing frequent handoff process. The scheme allows vehicles to continue connected to infrastructure network i.e. UMTS. Relay discovery, relay selection and gateway selection are discussed and examined. The proposed scheme can be implemented on top of any VANET routing protocols. AODV and DSDV were used as underlying protocol to evaluate our scheme. An integrated simulation environment combined of VanetMobiSim and NS2 is used to simulate our proposed scheme. The simplified gateway selection shows the best performance on top of AODV compare to DSDV. © 2012 IEEE.
Lai W.K.,TAR College |
Khan I.M.,IIUM |
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2012
Image segmentation is one of the fundamental and important steps that is needed to prepare an image for further processing in many computer vision applications. Over the last few decades, many image segmentation methods have been proposed, as accurate image segmentation is vitally important for many image, video and computer vision applications. A common approach is to look at the grey level colours of the image to perform multi-level-thresholding. The ability to quantify and compare the resulting segmented images is of vital importance even though it can be a major challenge. One measure used here computes the total distances of the pixels to its centroid for each region to provide a quantifiable measure of the segmented images. We also suggest an improved Zhang's entropy measure for image segmentation based on computing the entropy of the image and segmented regions. In this paper, we will present the results from both of these approaches. © 2012 The Authors.