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Dehradun, India

Matin S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Chitale V.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Behera M.D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Mishra B.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Roy P.S.,IIRS
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

The development and growth of geospatial techniques offer many advantages and challenges to the study of biodiversity, especially in the present era of climate change. We are now at the beginning of the international decade for biodiversity and by the time we travel through the decade, there would be sea-changes in the measurement and monitoring approaches, database management options, and inter-linked studies on biodiversity. With the onset of geoinformatics techniques comprising remote sensing, global positioning system (GPS), integrative tools, such as GIS, is realized as a complimentary system to ground-based biodiversity studies. Recently, a nationwide biodiversity study at landscape level using geoinformatics modeling techniques for India has been completed. The study has assessed plant diversity using a three-tier approach, wherein six biodiversity attributes (i. e., spatial, phytosociological, social, physical, economical, and ecological) were linked together based on their relative importance to stratify biological richness of forest vegetation (non-agricultural) of India. It has enumerated 7,964 plant species from 20,000 nested quadrate sampling plots of 0.04 ha each, delineated and mapped 120 vegetation classes; and organized the geo-spatial database on bisindia web portal. Here, we have (i) proposed a method to incorporate the fauna component in-line up with the existing methodology and (ii) utilized the GPS-gathered positional information on the distribution of two species (i.e., Medicago sativa and Poa annua to simulate their distribution for the year 2020 (SRES A1-B scenario, IPCC) using Maxent model. The study conducted in a test site of western Himalayas estimated (i) 24% increase in the overall biologically rich areas on supplement of fauna data and (ii) distribution of both the species would tend to increase in favor of shorter cold season. The study highlights the importance of geoinformatics technique-based biodiversity study for its amenability to incorporate any further change or modification, and utility of the geo-spatial biodiversity database for simulating various species distribution scenarios to understand their ecology in today's fast changing climate for effective conservation prescriptions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Mehta M.,IIRS | Kumar V.,Computer Science and Engineering | Singh S.,Computer Science and Engineering | Singh R.,Computer Science and Engineering | Singh A.,Computer Science and Engineering
Proceedings on 2015 1st International Conference on Next Generation Computing Technologies, NGCT 2015 | Year: 2015

This study considers the seasonal and annual analysis of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in three most populated countries of Asia namely: China, India and Indonesia. These countries are having increasing rates of population, industrialization, transportation etc., due to which aerosol loading in these nations is becoming a subject of great concern. This study is done using data from two satellite sensors i.e. MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectrometer). Level-3 monthly data sets have been used in the study for last ten years. The present work discusses both annual and seasonal variation of AOD in three most populated countries of Asia i.e. China, India and Indonesia. Seasons referred here are winter (December-February), premonsoon (March-May), monsoon (June-September) and postmonsoon (October-November). Annual and seasonal average aerosol optical depths have been quantified along with the relative AOD variation in the three countries. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Raju P.L.N.,Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics Group | Gupta P.K.,IIRS
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2012

One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical/scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) using NASA's Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6) with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted/received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS), mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities/Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and Geoinformation, capacity building for ISRO's operational projects/new satellite missions, developing e-learning contents and launching e-learning courses under twelfth five year (i.e. 2012-17) plan period of Government of India, in addition to continuing of existing distance learning programs for universities. Source

Mehta M.,IIRS
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2014

Aerosol optical depth retrieval over land surface using remote sensing employs the use of radiative transfer simulations and/or simultaneous measurements of atmospheric parameters at the time of satellite pass. Also, an accurate estimate of land surface parameters is also required in order to separate the atmospheric component from the land surface reflectance reaching at-sensor. In addition to empirical and semi-empirical approaches, amongst the most widely used methods to retrieve the aerosol properties from satellite measurements are radiative transfer codes used in either forward or inverse modes. As most of them are computationally complex, henceforth, efforts are made to formulate approximate models. In this study, we have tried to estimate aerosol optical depth using one such established physically based model, namely, SMART (Simple Model for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) code in multiple scattering approximation for aerosols over first band (0.52-0.59 μm) of RESOURCESAT-AWiFS sensor. The aim of the analysis was to find out an approach to decouple aerosol effects from Top of atmosphere signals recorded by AWiFS sensor using multiple scattering approximations for aerosols. The model is first calibrated for aerosol asymmetry parameter for one dataset each of summer and winter seasons respectively and subsequently validated for 4 different datasets (2 summer and 2 winter) against the MODIS atmosphere product for aerosol optical depth. The results show that the difference between simulated vs. MODIS AOD fall within MODIS expected errors for the aerosol product. Source

Raju P.L.N.,IIRS | Dadhwal V.K.,NRSC
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010

Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) is a premier institute in Asia Pacific region in the field of Capacity Building for Earth Observation Application and Geo-information Science. Since, its establishment as IPI in 1966, to share and upgrade the knowledge, IIRS has collaborated actively with international partners like ITC, IHE, WUR, The Netherlands, ITTO/JOFCA, WMO, UNFAO, UNESCO, ADPC, GDTA and JRC (EC) etc. The institute also hosts an UN affiliated regional Centre i.e. Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTEAP) and conducts Postgraduate (PG) and short courses in Remote Sensing and GIS for the UN Centre yearly basis. IIRS has been conducting short and long duration training programmes regularly for user organizations, mainly government sponsored professionals since its inception. However the major paradigm shift took place with initiation of Cross Boarder International Joint Education Programs (JEP) in 2002, thus helping Indian students to study an International Masters Programs in Earth Observation and Geo-information Science with specializations of Geo-informatics and Geo-hazards which otherwise will be difficult for them to obtain it without going abroad. Apart from financial aspects, the total costs for student being less, the JEP has specifically benefitted for upgradation of PG programs, follow international syllabus and provide a window for IIRS faculty & students to postgraduate research and evaluation international standards. Source

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