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Raju P.L.N.,Remote Sensing and Geoinformatics Group | Gupta P.K.,IIRS
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2012

One of the prime activities of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Space Program is providing satellite communication services, viz., television broadcasting, mobile communication, cyclone disaster warning and rescue operations etc. so as to improve their economic conditions, disseminate technical/scientific knowledge to improve the agriculture production and education for rural people of India. ISRO, along with National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) conducted experimental satellite communication project i.e. Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) using NASA's Advanced Telecommunication Satellite (i.e. ATS 6) with an objective to educate poor people of India via satellite broadcasting in 1975 and 1976, covering more than 2600 villages in six states of India and territories. Over the years India built communication satellites indigenously to meet the communication requirements of India. This has further lead to launch of an exclusive satellite from ISRO for educational purposes i.e. EDUSAT in 2004 through which rich audio-video content is transmitted/received, recreating virtual classes through interactivity. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) established in 1966, a premier institute in south East Asia in disseminating Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS), mainly focusing on contact based programs. But expanded the scope with satellite based Distance Learning Programs for Universities, utilizing the dedicated communication satellite i.e. EDUSAT in 2007. IIRS conducted successfully eight Distance Learning Programs in the last five years and training more than 6000 students mainly at postgraduate level from more than 60 universities/Institutions spread across India. IIRS obtained feedback and improved the programs on the continuous basis. Expanded the scope of IIRS outreach program to train user departments tailor made in any of the applications of Remote Sensing and Geoinformation, capacity building for ISRO's operational projects/new satellite missions, developing e-learning contents and launching e-learning courses under twelfth five year (i.e. 2012-17) plan period of Government of India, in addition to continuing of existing distance learning programs for universities.

Mehta M.,IIRS | Kumar V.,Computer Science and Engineering | Singh S.,Computer Science and Engineering | Singh R.,Computer Science and Engineering | Singh A.,Computer Science and Engineering
Proceedings on 2015 1st International Conference on Next Generation Computing Technologies, NGCT 2015 | Year: 2015

This study considers the seasonal and annual analysis of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in three most populated countries of Asia namely: China, India and Indonesia. These countries are having increasing rates of population, industrialization, transportation etc., due to which aerosol loading in these nations is becoming a subject of great concern. This study is done using data from two satellite sensors i.e. MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) and MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectrometer). Level-3 monthly data sets have been used in the study for last ten years. The present work discusses both annual and seasonal variation of AOD in three most populated countries of Asia i.e. China, India and Indonesia. Seasons referred here are winter (December-February), premonsoon (March-May), monsoon (June-September) and postmonsoon (October-November). Annual and seasonal average aerosol optical depths have been quantified along with the relative AOD variation in the three countries. © 2015 IEEE.

Thakur P.K.,IIRS | Aggarwal S.P.,IIRS | Garg P.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Garg R.D.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | And 3 more authors.
Geocarto International | Year: 2012

This study has been done using Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data to estimate the snow physical properties (snow wetness and snow density), in Manali sub-basin of Himachal Pradesh, India. The SAR data used are of Radarsat-2 (RS2) and Environmental Satellite, Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR). SAR-based inversion models were implemented in Mathematica and MATLAB, and have been used for finding out wet and dry snow dielectric constant, snow wetness and snow density. The SAR-based inversion models were implemented separately for fully polarimetric RS2 and dual polarimetric ASAR Alternate Polarization System datasets. Masks for forest, built area, layover and shadow were considered in estimating snow parameters. The overall accuracy in terms of R2 value comes out to be 0.86 for snow wetness and 0.84-0.72 for snow density based on the ground truth data for subset area of Manali sub-basin of Beas river up to Manali. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Matin S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Chitale V.S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Behera M.D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Mishra B.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Roy P.S.,IIRS
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2012

The development and growth of geospatial techniques offer many advantages and challenges to the study of biodiversity, especially in the present era of climate change. We are now at the beginning of the international decade for biodiversity and by the time we travel through the decade, there would be sea-changes in the measurement and monitoring approaches, database management options, and inter-linked studies on biodiversity. With the onset of geoinformatics techniques comprising remote sensing, global positioning system (GPS), integrative tools, such as GIS, is realized as a complimentary system to ground-based biodiversity studies. Recently, a nationwide biodiversity study at landscape level using geoinformatics modeling techniques for India has been completed. The study has assessed plant diversity using a three-tier approach, wherein six biodiversity attributes (i. e., spatial, phytosociological, social, physical, economical, and ecological) were linked together based on their relative importance to stratify biological richness of forest vegetation (non-agricultural) of India. It has enumerated 7,964 plant species from 20,000 nested quadrate sampling plots of 0.04 ha each, delineated and mapped 120 vegetation classes; and organized the geo-spatial database on bisindia web portal. Here, we have (i) proposed a method to incorporate the fauna component in-line up with the existing methodology and (ii) utilized the GPS-gathered positional information on the distribution of two species (i.e., Medicago sativa and Poa annua to simulate their distribution for the year 2020 (SRES A1-B scenario, IPCC) using Maxent model. The study conducted in a test site of western Himalayas estimated (i) 24% increase in the overall biologically rich areas on supplement of fauna data and (ii) distribution of both the species would tend to increase in favor of shorter cold season. The study highlights the importance of geoinformatics technique-based biodiversity study for its amenability to incorporate any further change or modification, and utility of the geo-spatial biodiversity database for simulating various species distribution scenarios to understand their ecology in today's fast changing climate for effective conservation prescriptions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Raju P.L.N.,IIRS | Dadhwal V.K.,NRSC
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010

Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) is a premier institute in Asia Pacific region in the field of Capacity Building for Earth Observation Application and Geo-information Science. Since, its establishment as IPI in 1966, to share and upgrade the knowledge, IIRS has collaborated actively with international partners like ITC, IHE, WUR, The Netherlands, ITTO/JOFCA, WMO, UNFAO, UNESCO, ADPC, GDTA and JRC (EC) etc. The institute also hosts an UN affiliated regional Centre i.e. Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Asia and the Pacific (CSSTEAP) and conducts Postgraduate (PG) and short courses in Remote Sensing and GIS for the UN Centre yearly basis. IIRS has been conducting short and long duration training programmes regularly for user organizations, mainly government sponsored professionals since its inception. However the major paradigm shift took place with initiation of Cross Boarder International Joint Education Programs (JEP) in 2002, thus helping Indian students to study an International Masters Programs in Earth Observation and Geo-information Science with specializations of Geo-informatics and Geo-hazards which otherwise will be difficult for them to obtain it without going abroad. Apart from financial aspects, the total costs for student being less, the JEP has specifically benefitted for upgradation of PG programs, follow international syllabus and provide a window for IIRS faculty & students to postgraduate research and evaluation international standards.

Ashraful Islam M.,University of Dhaka | Mitra D.,IIRS | Dewan A.,Curtin University Australia | Akhter S.H.,University of Dhaka
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2016

It is ironic that countries that are least responsible for or insignificant contributors to global climate change, are in fact, the most susceptible to its harmful impact. The Ganges deltaic coast, one of the largest sediment depocentres with the ~286 km long coastline of Bangladesh, faces a potentially multi-hazard threat due to climatic change. This study attempts to develop a coastal vulnerability index (CVI) by using seven physical parameters namely: (a) geomorphology; (b) coastal slope; (c) shoreline change rate; (d) rate of sea level change; (e) mean tide range; (f) bathymetry; and (g) storm surge height. These variables are considered as relative risk parameters and integrated through geospatial techniques (i.e., remote sensing and GIS), and then ranked to estimate the degree of coastline vulnerability to sea level rise. The entire coastline is ranked in accordance with multi-hazard vulnerability and the results reveal that 20.1% of the shoreline (57.9 km of total coastline in the Ganges delta) is very highly vulnerable, whilst 17.5% of shoreline (50.0 km) is estimated to be highly vulnerable. In contrast, 21.5% of the entire shoreline (61.3 km) is moderately vulnerable, whereas approximately 56.6 km (19.7%) and 60.4 km (21.2%) of the total shorelines are in low and very low vulnerability categories, respectively. The results of the CVI are expected to provide a clear picture for predicting future recession of shorelines; hence the outcome of this study can be used as an important tool by coastal managers for developing sustainable resources management practices. Furthermore, this study also offers a framework for prioritizing actions to enhance a community's resilience or to assist in developing appropriate adaptive measures as part of disaster risk reduction initiative. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Raju P.L.N.,IIRS | Gupta P.K.,IIRS | Roy P.S.,IIRS
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2011

Geoinformatics is a highly specialized discipline that deals with Remote Sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and field surveys for assessing, quantification, development and management of resources, planning and infrastructure development, utility services etc. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), a premier institute and one of its kinds has played a key role for capacity Building in this specialized area since its inception in 1966. Realizing the large demand, IIRS has started outreach program in basics of Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS for universities and institutions. EDUSAT (Educational Satellite) is the communication satellite built and launched by ISRO in 2004 exclusively for serving the educational sector to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for the country. IIRS has used EDUSAT (shifted to INSAT 4 CR recently due to termination of services from EDUSAT) for its distance learning program to impart basic training in Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS, catering to the universities spread across India. The EDUSAT based training is following similar to e-learning method but has advantage of live interaction sessions between teacher and the students when the lecture is delivered using EDUSAT satellite communication. Because of its good quality reception the interactions are not constrained due to bandwidth problems of Internet. National Natural Resource Management System, Department of Space, Government of India, under Standing Committee in Training and Technology funded this unique program to conduct the basic training in Geoinformatics. IIRS conducts 6 weeks basic training course on "Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS" regularly since the year 2007. The course duration is spread over the period of 3 months beginning with the start of the academic year (1st semester) i.e., July to December every year, for university students. IIRS has utilized EDUSAT satellite for conducting 4 six weeks training course during 2007 till 2009 and INSAT 4CR for conducting the next 2 programs. Till March 2011, fifty four universities with the participation of over 4000 students have benefited from the program (Table 7 and Figure 8). IIRS also organized workshops on "EDUSAT based distance learning: experiences & future learning" in 2007, 09 and 2011. Feedbacks have been taken to address the issues on course structure, duration etc. and plan for improvement in future programs and wider participation. Majority of the participants expressed satisfaction and provided positive feedback and willing to participate in the future programs.

Mehta M.,IIRS
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2014

Aerosol optical depth retrieval over land surface using remote sensing employs the use of radiative transfer simulations and/or simultaneous measurements of atmospheric parameters at the time of satellite pass. Also, an accurate estimate of land surface parameters is also required in order to separate the atmospheric component from the land surface reflectance reaching at-sensor. In addition to empirical and semi-empirical approaches, amongst the most widely used methods to retrieve the aerosol properties from satellite measurements are radiative transfer codes used in either forward or inverse modes. As most of them are computationally complex, henceforth, efforts are made to formulate approximate models. In this study, we have tried to estimate aerosol optical depth using one such established physically based model, namely, SMART (Simple Model for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) code in multiple scattering approximation for aerosols over first band (0.52-0.59 μm) of RESOURCESAT-AWiFS sensor. The aim of the analysis was to find out an approach to decouple aerosol effects from Top of atmosphere signals recorded by AWiFS sensor using multiple scattering approximations for aerosols. The model is first calibrated for aerosol asymmetry parameter for one dataset each of summer and winter seasons respectively and subsequently validated for 4 different datasets (2 summer and 2 winter) against the MODIS atmosphere product for aerosol optical depth. The results show that the difference between simulated vs. MODIS AOD fall within MODIS expected errors for the aerosol product.

Dhillon J.K.,IIRS | Mishra A.K.,IIRS
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

The present study is focussing on that how Landsat 7 ETM+ can be effectively used for estimation of Trophic State Index for Sukhna Lake. Sukhna Lake in Chandigarh has undergone lot of changes in last few decades. The depth and area both reduced tremendously. The shrinkage of the lake is due to the siltation and inadequate water volumes flowing to it. The Trophic State Index has been estimated by using secchi disk transparency and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. The in situ observations for parameters like pH, DO were measured by using multiparameter water quality instrument TROLL 9500. The best tested interpolation technique has been used to generate in situ images. The results have shown that the lake is in Hypereutrophic condition since 2000. © 2013 Indian Society of Remote Sensing.

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