Gabi, France
Gabi, France
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Boichard D.,IINRA | Guillaume F.,IINRA | Guillaume F.,Institute Of Lelevage | Baur A.,UNCEIA | And 9 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2012

Genomic selection is implemented in French Holstein, Montb́liarde, and Normande breeds (70%, 16% and 12% of French dairy cows). A characteristic of the model for genomic evaluation is the use of haplotypes instead of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), so as to maximise linkage disequilibrium between markers and quantitative trait loci (QTLs). For each trait, a QTL-BLUP model (i.e. a best linear unbiased prediction model including QTL random effects) includes 300700 trait-dependent chromosomal regions selected either by linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis or by elastic net. This model requires an important effort to phase genotypes, detect QTLs, select SNPs, but was found to be the most efficient one among all tested ones. QTLs are defined within breed and many of them were found to be breed specific. Reference populations include 1800 and 1400 bulls in Montb́liarde and Normande breeds. In Holstein, the very large reference population of 18300 bulls originates from the EuroGenomics consortium. Since 2008, ∼65000 animals have been genotyped for selection by Labogena with the 50k chip. Bulls genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) were made official in June 2009. In 2010, the market share of the young bulls reached 30% and is expected to increase rapidly. Advertising actions have been undertaken to recommend a time-restricted use of young bulls with a limited number of doses. In January 2011, genomic selection was opened to all farmers for females. Current developments focus on the extension of the method to a multi-breed context, to use all reference populations simultaneously in genomic evaluation. © 2012 CSIRO.

Salmon-Monviola J.,IINRA | Salmon-Monviola J.,Agrocampus Ouest | Moreau P.,IINRA | Moreau P.,Agrocampus Ouest | And 10 more authors.
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

Climate change and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration can impact hydrological and nitrogen cycling at the catchment scale. The objective of this study is to assess these impacts in an intensive agricultural headwater catchment in western France. A calibrated and validated agro-hydrological model was driven by output of the climate model ARPEGE under the A1B emission scenario over 30-year simulation periods. Our study indicated that with climate warming and increased atmospheric CO2, the main trends in water balance were a decrease in annual actual evapotranspiration (AET), a decrease in annual discharge and wetland extent, and a decrease in spring and summer of groundwater recharge and soil-water content. Not considering the effects of increased atmospheric CO2 in the agro-hydrological model led to overestimating discharge decrease and underestimating AET decrease and wetland extent. Climate change could influence N cycling by increasing soil N mineralisation, increasing soil denitrification in wetlands and upstream areas, and decreasing NO3-N load to streams. Since wetlands appear to be sensitive to climate change, improving modelling to better predict their responses is an important issue, especially to help plan sustainable management of these vulnerable areas. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Bivolarski V.,Plovdiv University | Vasileva T.,Plovdiv University | Dzhambazov B.,Plovdiv University | Momchilova A.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | And 3 more authors.
Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment | Year: 2013

A study on the production of soluble and cell wall-bound glucansucrases (GS) and fructansucrases (FS) by Leuconostoc mesenteroides URE13 and L. mesenteroides Lm17 during their growth on media containing sucrose, glucose or fructose as a main carbon source was carried out. The changes in the enzyme activity, the assimilation of sugars and the formation of metabolites during the cultivation were measured and compared. Soluble and cell wall-bound GS and FS were determined using SDS-PAGE, and in situ analysis. The results showed that glucose and fructose have a different effect on GS and FS production. Both strains of Leuconostoc produce GS and FS with molecular masses of (170-180) kDa and 120 kDa, respectively. In addition, L. mesenteroides URE13 produced a 300 kDa extracellular GS, during the cultivation on media containing glucose or fructose. This confirmed that the production is not only sucrose-dependent but is also detected when other sugars are used. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to understand the correlation between the activities of GS, mannitol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase.

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