Mutlak H.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Humpich M.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Zacharowski K.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Lehmann R.,Medizinische Klinik III Kardiologie |
Meininger D.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Anaesthesist | Year: 2011
The probability of treating patients with valvular heart disease during non-cardiac surgery increases with the age of the patient. The prevalence of valvular heart disease is approximately 2.5% and increases further in the patient group aged over 75 years old. Patients with valvular heart disease undergoing non-cardiac surgery have an increased perioperative cardiovascular risk depending on the severity of the disease. Knowledge of the hemodynamic alterations and compensation mechanisms which accompany diseases of the valve apparatus is essential for a suitable treatment of patients with such pre-existing diseases. The most common valvular heart diseases lead to volume (mitral valve insufficiency) or pressure load (aortic stenosis) of the left ventricle and in the case of mitral stenosis to a pressure load on the left atrium. Depending on the underlying disease and the type of surgery planned a corresponding choice of anesthesia procedure and medication must be made. In the present review article the pathophysiology of the relevant valvular heart diseases and the implications for perioperative anesthesia management will be presented. An individually tailored extended perioperative monitoring allows hemodynamic alterations to be rapidly recognized and adequately treated. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.