Contribution of whole-body magnetic resonance in the diagnostics of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma [Přínos celotělové magnetické rezonance v diagnostice monoklonální gamapatie nejistého významu a mnohočetného myelomu]
Scudla V.,III. Interni Klinika LF UP |
Herman M.,Radiologicka Klinika LF UP |
Minarik J.,III. Interni Klinika LF UP |
Pika T.,III. Interni Klinika LF UP |
And 2 more authors.
Klinicka Biochemie a Metabolismus | Year: 2011
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the significance of the whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MR) in resolution of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and initial, asymptomatic form of multiple myeloma (MM), in specification of MM stage, including the detection of extramedullary progression, as well as the diagnostics of solitary plasmocytoma (SP) and the evaluation of practical usefulness of the Durie-Salmon Plus staging system (D-S Plus). Settings: 3 rd Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Medical Faculty of Palacky University, Olomouc. Material and Methods: The analyzed 87 patient cohort consisted of 28 MGUS individuals, 54 patients with newly diagnosed MM and 5 patients with SP. WB-MR was evaluated using Magnetom Avanto 1,5 T with the use of virtual whole body coil with sequential acquisition on 7 levels and 2 sequentions - T2 STIR and T1. Based on the number of lesions and the pattern of diffuse changes there was assessed the D-S Plus stage and compared with the results of the standard D-S stratification system. Statistical estimation was done using the Cohen kappa and McNemara-Bowker test at p < 0.05. Results: In the group of 28 MGUS individuals, there were 17 (61%) patients fulfilling with the use of IMWG (International Myeloma Working Group) and/or WB-MR, criteria of transformation into the MM. In 4/17 (23%) individuals, there was described more advanced stage when comparing the stratification system D-S Plus to D-S system, based on the conventional radiography of the skeleton (CRS). Nine out of 14 (64%) individuals with transforming MGUS with negative radiological assessment had positive findings on WB-MR. The character of WB-MR findings led in 9/17 (53%) of the patients with MM to the initiation of the induction treatment. Stratification according to D-S Plus divided the 54 newly diagnosed patients with MM into stages 1-3 (17%, 33% and 50%). In 22% there was a shift into a higher stage using D-S Plus in comparison with D-S, in 9% of the patients the shift led to downstaging. In 13% of the MM patients there was described extramedullary, especially paraspinal propagation of the tumour. In 2 of the 5 SP patients there was recognized multifocal form using WB-MR. Conclusions: WB-MR is a very contributive imaging method with substantially higher resolution than conventional radiography, because it is able to evaluate the grade and the extent of myeloma bone disease, extramedullary propagation as well as the true recognition of solitary form of plasmocytoma. It improves the standard diagnostic criteria using in differentiation of stable MGUS from the phase of malignant transformation into MM. The D-S Plus system proved practical potential for incorporation into the standard diagnostic and stratification algorithms in MGUS and MM.