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Jung M.,IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS | Jung M.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Sola A.,IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS | Sola A.,CIBER ISCIII | And 8 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2012

Ischemia/reperfusion injury is a leading cause of acute renal failure triggering an inflammatory response associated with infiltrating macrophages, which determine disease outcome. To repair the inflammation we designed a procedure whereby macrophages that overexpress the anti-inflammatory agent interleukin (IL)-10 were adoptively transferred. These bone marrow-derived macrophages were able to increase their intracellular iron pool that, in turn, augmented the expression of lipocalin-2 and its receptors. Infusion of these macrophages into rats after 1 h of reperfusion resulted in localization of the cells to injured kidney tissue, caused increases in regenerative markers, and a notable reduction in both blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Furthermore, IL-10 therapy decreased the local inflammatory profile and upregulated the expression of pro-regenerative lipocalin-2 and its receptors. IL-10-mediated protection and subsequent renal repair were dependent on the presence of iron and lipocalin-2, since the administration of a neutralizing antibody for lipocalin-2 or administration of IL-10 macrophages pretreated with the iron chelating agent deferoxamine abrogated IL-10-mediated protective effects. Thus, adoptive transfer of IL-10 macrophages to ischemic kidneys blunts acute kidney injury. These effects are mediated through the action of intracellular iron to induce lipocalin-2. © 2012 International Society of Nephrology.

Ventayol M.,IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS | Vinas J.L.,IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS | Sola A.,IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS | Sola A.,CIBER ISCIII | And 6 more authors.
Cell Death and Disease | Year: 2014

miRNA let-7e is involved in stem cell differentiation, and metalloproteinases are among its potential target genes. We hypothesized that the inhibitory action of let-7e on regulation of MMP9 expression could represent a crucial mechanism during differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs were differentiated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to promote differentiation, and the effect of let-7 silencing during differentiation was tested. Results indicate that ASCs cultured with ATRA differentiated into cells of the epithelial lineage. We found that ASCs cultured with ATRA or transfected with miRNA let-7e expressed epithelial markers such as cytokeratin-18 and early renal organogenesis markers such as Pax2, Wt1, Wnt4 and megalin. Conversely, the specific knockdown of miRNA let-7e in ASCs significantly decreased the expression of these genes, indicating its vital role during the differentiation process. Using luciferase reporter assays, we also showed that MMP9 is a direct target of miRNA let-7e. Thus, our results suggest that miRNA let-7e acts as a matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) inhibitor and differentiation inducer in ASCs. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

European Journal of Inflammation | Year: 2014

Neutrophil apoptosis is delayed in medical conditions associated to anoxia or hypoxia, prolonging tissue destruction and fostering the inflammation. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α), is a main regulator of delayed neutrophil apoptosis but the mechanism of action is poorly characterized. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (24p3) participates actively in iron metabolism and the regulation of iron-responsive genes. Recently, a connection has been described between HIF-1α and 24p3. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether constitutive apoptosis in neutrophils requires 24p3 and whether HIF-1α represses 24p3 affecting cell death iron intracellular levels. To this end we used in vivo ischemic models and anoxic approaches based on the reactivation of the delayed apoptosis. We found that the stabilization of HIF-α during anoxic periods provoked a delay in neutrophil apoptosis through decrease of 24p3 expression and intracellular iron content. The ischemia drastically inhibited the synthesis of 24p3 in circulating neutrophils, increasing the tissue damage. Reactivation of neutrophil apoptosis with opsonized E.coli induced increases in intracellular levels of iron and 24p3. In conclusion, contrary to other cell types, constitutive apoptosis in neutrophils requires 24p3. During hypoxia or ischemia, HIF-1α stabilization represses 24p3 expression, consequently iron levels are depleted and neutrophil apoptosis is delayed. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

PubMed | IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS, Goethe University Frankfurt and CIBER ISCIII
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury triggers an inflammatory response associated to infiltrating macrophages which determines the further outcome of disease. Brown Norway rats are known to show endogenous resistance to ischemia-induced renal damage. By contrast, Sprague Dawley rats exhibit a higher susceptibility to ischemic injury. In order to ascertain cytoprotective mechanisms, we focused on the implication of lipocalin-2 protein in main resistance mechanisms in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by using adoptive macrophage administration, genetically modified ex vivo either to overexpress or to knockdown lipocalin-2. In vitro experiments with bone marrow-derived macrophages both from Brown Norway rats and from Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic conditions showed endogenous differences regarding cytokine and lipocalin-2 expression profile in the two strains. Most interestingly, we observed that macrophages of the resistant strain express significantly more lipocalin-2. In vivo studies showed that tubular epithelial cell apoptosis and renal injury significantly increased and reparative markers decreased in Brown Norway rats after injection of lipocalin-2-knockdown macrophages, while the administration of lipocalin-2-overexpressing cells significantly decreased Sprague Dawley susceptibility. These data point to a crucial role of macrophage-derived lipocalin-2 in endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms. We conclude that expression of lipocalin-2 in tissue-infiltrating macrophages is pivotal for kidney-intrinsic cytoprotective pathways during ischemia reperfusion injury.

Llado-Pelfort L.,IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS | Llado-Pelfort L.,Research Center En Red Of Salud Mental Cibersam | Santana N.,IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS | Santana N.,Research Center En Red Of Salud Mental Cibersam | And 8 more authors.
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2012

5-HT 1A receptors (5-HT1AR) are expressed by pyramidal and γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Endogenous serotonin inhibits mPFC pyramidal neurons via 5-HT1AR while 5-HT1AR agonists, given systemically, paradoxically excite ventral tegmental area-projecting pyramidal neurons. This enhances mesocortical dopamine function, a process involved in the superior efficacy of atypical antipsychotic drugs on negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Moreover, the 5-HT1AR-induced increase of pyramidal discharge may also contribute to the maintenance of activity patterns required for working memory, impaired in schizophrenia. Given the importance of these processes, we examined the neurobiological basis of pyramidal activation through 5-HT1AR using the prototypical agent 8-OH-DPAT. (±)8-OH-DPAT (7.5 μg/kg i.v.) increased discharge rate and c-fos expression in rat mPFC pyramidal neurons. Local blockade of GABAA inputs with gabazine (SR-95531) avoided (±)8-OH-DPAT-induced excitations of pyramidal neurons. Moreover, (±)8-OH-DPAT administration reduced the discharge rate of mPFC fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons at doses exciting pyramidal neurons. Activation of other 5-HT1AR subpopulations (raphe nuclei or hippocampus) does not appear to contribute to pyramidal excitations. Overall, the present data suggest a preferential action of (±)8-OH-DPAT on 5-HT1AR in GABAergic interneurons. This results in pyramidal disinhibition and subsequent downstream excitations of subcortical structures reciprocally connected with PFC, such as midbrain dopaminergic neurons. © 2011 The Author.

Schneeberger M.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS | Schneeberger M.,University of Barcelona | Schneeberger M.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Diabetes fermedades Metabolicas Asociadas | Dietrich M.O.,Yale University | And 31 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

Summary Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) plays critical roles in both mitochondrial fusion and the establishment of mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions. Hypothalamic ER stress has emerged as a causative factor for the development of leptin resistance, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we show that mitochondria-ER contacts in anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are decreased in diet-induced obesity. POMC-specific ablation of Mfn2 resulted in loss of mitochondria-ER contacts, defective POMC processing, ER stress-induced leptin resistance, hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and obesity. Pharmacological relieve of hypothalamic ER stress reversed these metabolic alterations. Our data establish MFN2 in POMC neurons as an essential regulator of systemic energy balance by fine-tuning the mitochondrial-ER axis homeostasis and function. This previously unrecognized role for MFN2 argues for a crucial involvement in mediating ER stress-induced leptin resistance. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Artigas F.,IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS | Artigas F.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Salud Mental Cibersam
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hdroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression since the serendipitous discovery of antidepressant drugs in the 1950s. However, despite the generalised use of serotonin-enhancing drugs, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), the exact neurobiological mechanisms involved in the therapeutic action of these drugs are poorly understood. Better knowledge of these mechanisms may help to identify new therapeutic targets and to overcome the two main limitations of current treatments: reduced efficacy and slowness of action. Here I review the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the involvement of different 5-HT receptors in the therapeutic action of antidepressant drugs. Presynaptic 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B autoreceptors play a major detrimental role in antidepressant treatments, as their activation by the excess of the active (extracellular) 5-HT fraction produced by serotonin transporter (SERT) blockade reduces presynaptic serotonergic function. Conversely, stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors in corticolimbic networks appears beneficial for the antidepressant action. The 5-HT2 receptor family is also involved as 5-HT 2A/2C receptor blockade improves the antidepressant action of SSRIs, and recent data suggest that 5-HT2B receptor activation enhances serotonergic activity. Less is known from the rest of postsynaptic 5-HT receptors. However, 5-HT3 receptor blockade augments the 5-HT increase evoked by SERT inhibition, and 5-HT4 receptor activation may have antidepressant effects on its own. Finally, blockade of 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors appears also to augment the antidepressant effects of SERT inhibition. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | University of Bordeaux 1, University of Buenos Aires, IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS, Chromatin and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer research | Year: 2015

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) offers an optimal model for discovering druggable molecular pathways that participate in inflammation-associated cancer development. Chronic pancreatitis, a common prolonged inflammatory disease, behaves as a well-known premalignant condition that contributes to PDAC development. Although the mechanisms underlying the pancreatitis-to-cancer transition remain to be fully elucidated, emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that the actions of proinflammatory mediators on cells harboring Kras mutations promote neoplastic transformation. Recent elegant studies demonstrated that the IL17 pathway mediates this phenomenon and can be targeted with antibodies, but the downstream mechanisms by which IL17 functions during this transition are currently unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that IL17 induces the expression of REG3, a well-known mediator of pancreatitis, during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and in early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions. Furthermore, we found that REG3 promotes cell growth and decreases sensitivity to cell death through activation of the gp130-JAK2-STAT3-dependent pathway. Genetic inactivation of REG3 in the context of oncogenic Kras-driven PDAC resulted in reduced PanIN formation, an effect that could be rescued by administration of exogenous REG3. Taken together, our findings provide mechanistic insight into the pathways underlying inflammation-associated pancreatic cancer, revealing a dual and contextual pathophysiologic role for REG3 during pancreatitis and PDAC initiation.

Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current pharmaceutical design | Year: 2014

Major depression is a severe psychiatric syndrome with very high prevalence and - socioeconomic impact. Despite extensive research, its pathophysiology is poorly understood, yet several neurotransmitter systems and brain areas have been implicated. The pharmacological treatment of major depression is mainly based on drugs inhibiting serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and/or noradrenaline (NA) reuptake. These drugs evoke a series of neuronal adaptive mechanisms that limit their full clinical action, making necessary for many patients the use of augmentation strategies. In spite of such strategies, many depressed patients show limited or no improvement, which worsens their quality of life and increases the risk of suicide. Several novel observations in recent years have shaken the antidepressant field, by showing that depressed patients with severe treatment resistance can rapidly experience clinical remission. Hence, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ventral anterior cingulate cortex (Cg25) evokes rapid mood improvements in treatment-resistant patients. Likewise, single doses of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine evoke rapid and long-lasting (up to 10 days) antidepressant responses in treatment-resistant patients. On the other hand, new molecular strategies aimed at modulating the expression of certain genes show great potential in the antidepressant field. In particular, RNAi strategies have been used to evoke antidepressant-like effects in laboratory animals by knocking-down the expression of genes involved in antidepressant effects, such as the serotonin transporter (SERT) or the 5-HT1A autoreceptor. Here we review these novel strategies due to their potential impact in the identification of new targets and the further development of new antidepressant drugs.

PubMed | IIBB CSIC IDIBAPS and Northumbria University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cell death & disease | Year: 2016

Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) regulates hepatic metabolism but its contribution to NF-B-dependent inflammation has been overlooked. Cysteine cathepsins (Cathepsin B or S, CTSB/S) execute specific functions in physiological processes, such as protein degradation, having SIRT1 as a substrate. We investigated the roles of CTSB/S and SIRT1 in the regulation of hepatic inflammation using primary parenchymal and non-parenchymal hepatic cell types and cell lines. In all cells analyzed, CTSB/S inhibition reduces nuclear p65-NF-B and B-dependent gene expression after LPS or TNF through enhanced SIRT1 expression. Accordingly, SIRT1 silencing was sufficient to enhance inflammatory gene expression. Importantly, in a dietary mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or in healthy and fibrotic mice after LPS challenge, cathepsins as well as NF-B-dependent gene expression are activated. Consistent with the prominent role of cathepsin/SIRT1, cysteine cathepsin inhibition limits NF-B-dependent hepatic inflammation through the regulation of SIRT1 in all in vivo settings, providing a novel anti-inflammatory therapeutic target in liver disease.

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