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Campbell S.C.,Rutgers University | Wisniewski P.J.,II
Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Imbalances in the gut microbiota contribute to chronic gut inflammatory diseases. Interestingly, exercise can improve gut health, but generally little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved. This article represents a conceptual model illustrating exercise’s role in diversifying the gut microbiota to improve gut and systemic health. © 2016 American College of Sports Medicine


St-Onge M.,Laval University | Kerns W.,II
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE:: To provide a management approach for adults with calcium channel blocker poisoning. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, AND DATA EXTRACTION:: Following the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation II instrument, initial voting statements were constructed based on summaries outlining the evidence, risks, and benefits. DATA SYNTHESIS:: We recommend 1) for asymptomatic patients, observation and consideration of decontamination following a potentially toxic calcium channel blocker ingestion (1D); 2) as first-line therapies (prioritized based on desired effect), IV calcium (1D), high-dose insulin therapy (1D–2D), and norepinephrine and/or epinephrine (1D). We also suggest dobutamine or epinephrine in the presence of cardiogenic shock (2D) and atropine in the presence of symptomatic bradycardia or conduction disturbance (2D); 3) in patients refractory to the first-line treatments, we suggest incremental doses of high-dose insulin therapy if myocardial dysfunction is present (2D), IV lipid-emulsion therapy (2D), and using a pacemaker in the presence of unstable bradycardia or high-grade arteriovenous block without significant alteration in cardiac inotropism (2D); 4) in patients with refractory shock or who are periarrest, we recommend incremental doses of high-dose insulin (1D) and IV lipid-emulsion therapy (1D) if not already tried. We suggest venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, if available, when refractory shock has a significant cardiogenic component (2D), and using pacemaker in the presence of unstable bradycardia or high-grade arteriovenous block in the absence of myocardial dysfunction (2D) if not already tried; 5) in patients with cardiac arrest, we recommend IV calcium in addition to the standard advanced cardiac life-support (1D), lipid-emulsion therapy (1D), and we suggest venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation if available (2D). CONCLUSION:: We offer recommendations for the stepwise management of calcium channel blocker toxicity. For all interventions, the level of evidence was very low.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. Copyright © by 2016 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Okello S.,San Francisco General Hospital | Boum Y.,II
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVES:: We sought to describe blood pressure changes after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and evaluate the association of markers of inflammation with incident hypertension in a cohort of HIV-individuals in Uganda. METHODS:: We used mixed effects linear regression to model changes in systolic blood pressure (BP) over time among a cohort of HIV-infected individuals initiating ART in Uganda. After exclusion of participants with pre-existing hypertension, we identified participants with normal BP throughout follow-up (controls) and those with elevated BP on ≥3 consecutive visits (cases). Prior to ART initiation, participants had testing for lnterleukin-6, kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, lipopolysaccharide, soluble CD14, soluble CD163, and D-dimer and those with viral suppression at six months during ART had repeat tests. We fit logistic regression models to estimate associations between biomarkers and risk of incident hypertension. RESULTS:: In the entire cohort, systolic BP increased by 9.6 mmHg/year (95% CI 7.3 - 11.8) in the first six months of ART, then plateaued. Traditional factors: male gender (AOR 2.76, 95% CI 1.34-5.68), age (AOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.13), overweight (AOR 4.48, 95%CI 1.83-10.97), and a CD4 count < 100 cells (AOR 3.08, 95% CI 1.07-8.89) were associated with incident hypertension. After adjusting for these, D-dimer levels at month 6 were inversely associated with incident hypertension (AOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.37-0.99). Although not significant, similar associations were seen with sCD14 and Kynurenine/Tryptophan (K/T) ratio. CONCLUSION:: Blood pressure increases early after ART initiation in Ugandans. Traditional risk factors, rather than immune activation were associated with incident hypertension in this population. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Andrei A.-.,Babes - Bolyai University | Robeson M.S.,II
ISME Journal | Year: 2015

Hypersaline meromictic lakes are extreme environments in which water stratification is associated with powerful physicochemical gradients and high salt concentrations. Furthermore, their physical stability coupled with vertical water column partitioning makes them important research model systems in microbial niche differentiation and biogeochemical cycling. Here, we compare the prokaryotic assemblages from Ursu and Fara Fund hypersaline meromictic lakes (Transylvanian Basin, Romania) in relation to their limnological factors and infer their role in elemental cycling by matching taxa to known taxon-specific biogeochemical functions. To assess the composition and structure of prokaryotic communities and the environmental factors that structure them, deep-coverage small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing, community domain-specific quantitative PCR and physicochemical analyses were performed on samples collected along depth profiles. The analyses showed that the lakes harbored multiple and diverse prokaryotic communities whose distribution mirrored the water stratification patterns. Ursu Lake was found to be dominated by Bacteria and to have a greater prokaryotic diversity than Fara Fund Lake that harbored an increased cell density and was populated mostly by Archaea within oxic strata. In spite of their contrasting diversity, the microbial populations indigenous to each lake pointed to similar physiological functions within carbon degradation and sulfate reduction. Furthermore, the taxonomy results coupled with methane detection and its stable C isotope composition indicated the presence of a yet-undescribed methanogenic group in the lakes’ hypersaline monimolimnion. In addition, ultrasmall uncultivated archaeal lineages were detected in the chemocline of Fara Fund Lake, where the recently proposed Nanohaloarchaeota phylum was found to thrive.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 1 May 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.60. © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology


OBJECTIVES: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are implicated in diseases of adulthood. We report the prevalence of ACEs in Hispanics/Latinos in the US and their association with major risk factors and diseases in adulthood. METHODS: Data from the Sociocultural Ancillary Study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) were used. The Sociocultural Ancillary Study of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is an epidemiological study conducted in four urban communities in the US: Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. The analytic sample comprised 5117 participants, ages 18 to 74 at baseline. Linear and logistic models, adjusted for sociodemographic factors, were used to examine associations of ACEs and risk factors (depressive symptoms, obesity, smoking, and alcohol use) and chronic disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancer); the latter were also adjusted for risk factors. RESULTS: Most participants (77.2%) experienced at least one ACE, and 28.7% experienced four or more. Adverse childhood experiences were common among all ancestry groups, with variability among them. Prevalence of four or more ACEs was higher among women than men (31.2% and 25.8%, respectively). Adverse childhood experiences were associated with depressive symptoms, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, cancer, coronary heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but not asthma, diabetes, or stroke. Associations were not moderated by social support. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse childhood experiences are prevalent among US Hispanics/Latinos and are involved in disease in adulthood. The apparent higher prevalence of ACEs in US Hispanics/Latinos did not correspond with stronger associations with disease. Further studies are needed to identify factors that may moderate the associations of ACE with adult disease. Copyright © 2016 by American Psychosomatic Society


Zimmerman R.A.,II
Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference | Year: 2015

Function Generation is a long standing linkage design problem. It is possible to design a planar four bar linkage whose input and output links will pass through seven coordinated positions. This paper discloses the first graphical solution to this problem. The approach is to consider the constraints imposed by the target positions on the linkage through the poles and rotation angles. This approach enables the designer to explore the range of possible solutions when fewer than seven positions are specified by dragging a fixed or moving pivot in the plane. The selection of free choices is made at the end of the process and the complete mechanism is visible when the choices are made. The constraints only need to be made once which eliminates the repetitive construction required by previous methods to consider multiple pivot locations. Since it is so easy to consider multiple pivot locations and the solution mechanism is visible, the required design time is greatly reduced. A corresponding analytical solution is also developed and solved based on the same constraints. This is a new analytical solution and is defined by a system of 20 nonlinear equations with 20 unknowns. Copyright © 2015 by ASME.


Tyson J.,II
CAMX 2015 - Composites and Advanced Materials Expo | Year: 2015

Optical measurements are becoming critical for modern design, manufacturing and test. As computer aided design, modeling and simulation are critical for product design and development, the test world now uses full-field optical measurements to better understand the holistic response of their materials, structures and completed designs. This full-field measurement and response allows engineers to more fully understand their parts and their interactions, improving the quality of the designs. This new methodology is the ideal tool for materials measurements, including complex measurements of forming limit curves and flow curves, to get more accurate materials measurements, full-scale article tests and crash tests. An image is worth 1000 strain gauges. These greatly improved data sets provide thousands of measurement points, rather than the traditional, couple of measurement points from strain gauges, LVDTs or accelerometers. This full-field data also traverses material transitions, allowing precise monitoring of real boundary conditions. With these improved data, computer model iteration is much easier and more real. And, precise model validation can be performed on a greater variety of conditions, allowing the models to more accurately predict real design behavior. This paper will review advances in optical measurements throughout the design cycle, and discuss how this data can greatly enhance design quality and consistency. Copyright 2015 by John Tyson II. Published by CAMX-The Composites and Advanced Materials Expo with permission.


Zimmerman R.A.,II
Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference | Year: 2014

Coupler point path guidance is a long standing linkage design problem. It is possible to design a four bar linkage with a coupler point that will pass through up to nine specified points. This paper discloses a new graphical solution to this problem. The approach is to consider the constraints imposed by the target points on the linkage through the poles and rotation angles. This approach enables the designer to explore the range of possible solutions when fewer than nine points are specified by dragging a fixed or moving pivot in the plane. The selection of free choices is made at the end of the process and the complete mechanism is visible when the choices are made. The constraints only need to be made once which eliminates the repetitive construction required by previous methods to consider multiple pivot locations. Since it is so easy to consider multiple pivot locations and the solution mechanism is always visible, the required design time is greatly reduced. A corresponding analytical solution is also developed and solved based on the same constraints. The analytical solution is defined by a system of 28 nonlinear equations with 28 unknowns. Copyright © 2014 by ASME.


Freeland R.M.,II
JBIS - Journal of the British Interplanetary Society | Year: 2015

Project Icarus is a theoretical design study for an interstellar probe based on the landmark Project Daedalus study completed in 1978. The Project Icarus Terms of Reference [1] (ToR) specify that the probe should achieve at least some deceleration at the target system. Magnetic sails were initially proposed by Andrews and Zubrin [2] in 1988 as a potential aid to interstellar deceleration, and several papers have since been written on the subject. This paper presents the complete calculations for a magsail and evaluates suitability of the various approximations used to simplify the math. The resulting calculations are then used to model full deceleration of a magsail-equipped vessel vs. one that uses only a fusion engine. This paper is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.


Julian P.,II
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2015

Abstract This study evaluated the degree of sediment contamination in several South Florida estuaries. During the 2010 National Condition Assessment, Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute collected water column, sediment and biotic data from estuaries across the entire state of Florida. Sediments were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, zinc and total polychlorinated biphenyls and were compared relative to empirically derived sediment quality guidelines. As a result of this data collection and assessment effort, it was determined that the degree of contamination with respect to sediment was low for all southern Florida estuaries assessed, except the Miami River which was determined to be considerably contaminated. However only one monitoring location was used to assess the Miami River, and as such should be viewed with caution. A low degree of contamination was determined for Biscayne Bay sediments, possibly indicating a recovery from its previously reported higher contaminant level. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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