IHS ESDU

Houndsditch, United Kingdom
Houndsditch, United Kingdom

Time filter

Source Type

Macchietto S.,Imperial College London | Hewitt G.F.,Imperial College London | Coletti F.,Imperial College London | Crittenden B.D.,University of Bath | And 13 more authors.
Heat Transfer Engineering | Year: 2011

A major cause of refinery energy inefficiency is fouling in preheat trains. This has been a most challenging problem for decades, due to limited fundamental understanding of its causes, deposition mechanisms, deposit composition, and impacts on design/operations. Current heat exchanger design methodologies mostly just allow for fouling, rather than fundamentally preventing it. To address this problem in a systematic way, a large-scale interdisciplinary research project, CROF (crude oil fouling), brought together leading experts from the University of Bath, University of Cambridge, and Imperial College London and, through IHS ESDU, industry. The research, coordinated in eight subprojects blending theory, experiments, and modeling work, tackles fouling issues across all scales, from molecular to the process unit to the overall heat exchanger network, in an integrated way. To make the outcomes of the project relevant and transferable to industry, the research team is working closely with experts from many world leading oil companies. The systematic approach of the CROF project is presented. Individual subprojects are outlined, together with how they work together. Initial results are presented, indicating that a quantum progress can be achieved from such a fundamental, integrated approach. Some preliminary indications with respect to impact on industrial practice are discussed. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kumana J.D.,Kumana | Pugh S.J.,IHS ESDU | Ishiyama E.M.,IHS ESDU
3rd AIChE Regional Process Technology Conference 2011 | Year: 2011

Historically Refinery Fouling has been accepted as unavoidable & uncontrollable Research progress in past 10-15 years shows that it is mostly due to asphaltene deposition Portfolio of techniques for mitigation and control: Crude oil blending Parameter control for S&T hx (shear rate, temp) Tube inserts Low-fouling HX - twisted tube, compabloc, helical Anti-fouling additives Optimize HX cleaning schedules Restructure HEN configuration Potential Energy savings -5 cents/bbl.


Walker S.K.,Jesmond Engineering Ltd. | Quilter A.C.,IHS ESDU
ICAF 2011 Structural Integrity: Influence of Efficiency and Green Imperatives - Proceedings of the 26th Symposium of the International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue | Year: 2011

IHS ESDU decided to approach a number of organisations in order to compile a reference source of cyclic stress-strain and strain-life properties for the benefit of the wider aerospace industry. Work began in 2006 on the collection and collation of the raw data points for commonly-used aerospace metallic materials. Beside the data available in the literature and other readily-accessible sources, efforts were made to encourage organisations with their own data to contribute to a database from which they would subsequently benefit. Considerable support and enthusiasm were expressed for the project and generous donations of data were received from a number of organisations. These data were combined with those gathered from public domain sources and those considered to be the most robust were retained. Cyclic stress-strain curves fitted using the Ramberg-Osgood equation were found to correlate well with the test data. The Coffin-Manson strain-life model was generally less successful but curves are provided due to their widespread use. The resulting set of cyclic stress-strain and strain-life properties of commonly-used aerospace metallic materials permits a wider appreciation of material fatigue behaviour not previously available. The results are to be published in forthcoming IHS ESDU Data Item Number 11003. Analysis of specimen geometries led to some simple design recommendations that may be useful to those considering future strain-controlled testing.


Ishiyama E.M.,University of Cambridge | Pugh S.J.,IHS ESDU | Paterson B.,University of Cambridge | Polley G.T.,IHS ESDU | And 3 more authors.
Heat Transfer Engineering | Year: 2013

Crude oil refinery preheat trains are designed to reduce energy consumption, but their operation can be hampered by fouling. Fouling behaviors vary from one refinery to the next. Effective management of preheat train operation requires inspection of historical plant performance data to determine fouling behaviors, and the exploitation of that knowledge in turn to predict future performance. Scenarios of interest can include performance based on current operating conditions, modifications such as heat exchanger retrofits, flow split control, and scheduling of cleaning actions. Historical plant monitoring data are frequently inconsistent and usually need to be subject to data reconciliation. Inadequate data reconciliation results in misleading information on fouling behavior. This article describes an approach to crude preheat train management from data reconciliation to analysis and scenario planning based around a preheat train simulator, smartPM, developed at Cambridge and IHS. The proposed methodology is illustrated through a case study that could be used as a management guideline for preheat train operations. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Polley G.T.,University of Guanajuato | Fuentes A.M.,University of Guanajuato | Pugh S.J.,IHS ESDU
Heat Transfer Engineering | Year: 2011

Fouling dominates the design of heat exchangers used in crude oil preheat trains. It also dominates the lifetime cost of the trains, where the most important cost factor is lost profit through reduced production. Thus, the design objective should be the identification of geometries that provide acceptable performance throughout a desired operating period. This paper suggests a new design approach for shell-and-tube heat exchangers in refinery preheat trains that uses dynamic crude oil fouling models rather than conventional fouling factors to yield designs that are capable of achieving a specified operating period between cleaning operations. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Polley G.T.,University of Guanajuato | Wilson D.I.,University of Cambridge | Ishiyama E.,IHS ESDU
11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting and 7th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

The rate at which an exchanger heating crude oil fouls increases with increasing wall temperature and decreases with increasing velocity. Fouling can be mitigated by reducing wall temperatures and by increasing wall shear. These actions can be achieved by making changes to the heat exchanger or by adjusting the conditions under which the exchanger operates. A discussion on mitigating fouling in pre-heat trains covers the modeling of heat exchangers forming a pre-heat train to identify ways in which fouling in individual exchangers can be reduced; operating conditions of individual units; design margin specifications; the no-fouling design; variables influencing the wall and film temperatures encountered in a heat exchanger; and evaluating changes in train performance using thermal-hydraulic simulation. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting & 7th Global Congress on Process Safety (Chicago, IL 3/13-17/2011).


Polley G.T.,University of Guanajuato | Tamakloe E.,University of Guanajuato | Ishiyama E.,IHS ESDU | Pugh S.J.,IHS ESDU
11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting and 7th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

The means of analyzing plant data to establish the parameters that need to be set to fit a fouling model for the crude oil being handled are well established. There are two basic means of analyzing the data generated during the monitoring of the performance of pre-heat trains, i.e., analysis of data from individual exchangers and the use of thermal-hydraulic simulation to look at both individual exchanger performance and the overall performance of the pre-heat train. Either approach can be used when the instrumentation of the pre-heat train is extensive and there is confidence in the validity of the measurements. The thermal hydraulic simulation should be used when data is sparse. The analysis can be incorporated into software for analyzing heat exchanger performance or into simulating the thermal and hydraulic performance of a whole network. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting & 7th Global Congress on Process Safety (Chicago, IL 3/13-17/2011).


Polley G.T.,University of Guanajuato | Tamakloe E.,University of Guanajuato | Wilson D.I.,University of Cambridge | Ishiyama E.,IHS ESDU
11AIChE - 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting and 7th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2011

Models for the prediction of fouling rates can be coupled with exchanger simulations to evaluate the thermal behavior of pre-heat trains. Models accounting for the effects of fouling on pressure drop have also been developed, which can be used to evaluate the hydraulic effects of fouling and the limitations it places on plant throughput. A discussion on the thermal hydraulic simulation of pre-heat train behavior covers the importance of hydraulic effects in the determination of fouling rates in individual heat exchangers; use of software to analyze plant data to determine the parameters that should be employed in fouling models; economics of heat exchanger cleaning; design of new pre-heat trains; a design for an exchanger using the parameter plot; and incorporating an algorithm into the simulation that uses the fouling model to identify trade-offs. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2011 AIChE Spring Meeting & 7th Global Congress on Process Safety (Chicago, IL 3/13-17/2011).


Ishiyama E.M.,IHS ESDU | Pugh S.J.,IHS ESDU | Polley G.T.,University of Guanajuato | Wilson D.I.,University of Cambridge
12AIChE - 2012 AIChE Spring Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

Data reconciliation is highlighted as a vital step in assessing crude refinery preheat train performance before planning cleaning schedules. A novel computer program from IHS, SmartPM, is presented to generate missing stream measurements to obtain individual heat exchanger fouling resistance profiles. A case study preheat train with real plant monitoring data based on an existing refinery is presented. The fouling resistance profiles generated through SmartPM were used to identify periods of stable operations to formulate parameters for fouling models. With the fouling parameters, the fouling model was successfully used to simulate the performance of the network as well as to formulate optimum cleaning schedules. The cleaning schedules with industrial constraints, e.g., limited number of cleaning, was successfully simulated with SmartPM. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2012 AIChE Spring Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety (Houston, TX 4/1-5/2012).


Ishiyama E.M.,IHS ESDU | Polley G.T.,University of Guanajuato | Pugh S.J.,IHS ESDU
12AIChE - 2012 AIChE Spring Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety, Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

Fouling of crude oil streams is the major cause of planned and unplanned downtime in oil refineries. Often, it has not been recognized that fouling is often unnecessarily severe in poorly designed heat exchangers. An experience in the application of dynamic fouling modeling using the novel heat exchanger network simulation tools, EXPRESSplus and SmartPM, is presented. These experiences illustrate the performance of dynamic fouling models in refinery pre-heat trains and the identification of opportunities for predictable improvements, for example through simple equipment modifications. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2012 AIChE Spring Meeting and 8th Global Congress on Process Safety (Houston, TX 4/1-5/2012).

Loading IHS ESDU collaborators
Loading IHS ESDU collaborators