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Stolp H.,IHRC Inc. | Stolp H.,United Health Centers | Fox J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Journal of Women's Health | Year: 2015

The receipt of clinical preventive services is important for health promotion and prevention of illness, death, and disability for women in the United States. Today, the Affordable Care Act makes a variety of evidence-based preventive services available with no out-of-pocket cost to women with certain health insurance plans. Nevertheless, available service receipt data suggest receipt of the services for all American adults remains suboptimal. This article seeks to raise awareness about the critical gaps in the delivery of preventive services to women and highlight opportunities for women, primary care providers, and public health professionals to increase receipt of clinical preventive services among women. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2015.

Maalouf J.,Heart Health | Maalouf J.,IHRC Inc. | Cogswell M.E.,Heart Health | Yuan K.,Heart Health | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Sodium intake is high in US children. Data are limited on the dietary sources of sodium, especially from birth to age 24 mo. Objective: We identified top sources of dietary sodium in US children from birth to age 24 mo. Design: Data from the NHANES 2003-2010 were used to examine food sources of sodium (population proportions and mean intakes) in 778 participants aged 0-5.9 mo, 914 participants aged 6-11.9 mo, and 1219 participants aged 12-23.9 mo by sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Overall, mean dietary sodium intake was low in 0-5.9-moold children, and the top contributors were formula (71.7%), human milk (22.9%), and commercial baby foods (2.2%). In infants aged 6-11.9 mo, the top 5 contributors were formula (26.7%), commercial baby foods (8.8%), soups (6.1%), pasta mixed dishes (4.0%), and human milk (3.9%). In children aged 12-23.9 mo, the top contributors were milk (12.2%), soups (5.4%), cheese (5.2%), pasta mixed dishes (5.1%), and frankfurters and sausages (4.6%). Despite significant variation in top food categories across racial/ethnic groups, commercial baby foods were a top food contributor in children aged 6-11.9 mo, and frankfurters and sausages were a top food contributor in children aged 12-23.9 mo. The top 5 food categories that contributed to sodium intake also differed by sex. Most of the sodium consumed (83-90%) came from store foods (e.g., from the supermarket). In children aged 12-23.9 mo, 9% of sodium consumed came from restaurant foods, and 4% of sodium came from childcare center foods. Conclusions: The vast majority of sodium consumed comes from foods other than infant formula or human milk after the age of 6 mo. Although the majority of sodium intake was from store foods, after age 12 mo, restaurant foods contribute significantly to intake. Reducing the sodium content in these settings would reduce sodium intake in the youngest consumers. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

Gladney L.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Gladney L.M.,IHRC Inc. | Tarr C.L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2014

We characterized 18 Vibrio isolates, including 15 recovered from human clinical specimens, and found that they clustered with two previously characterized Vibrio navarrensis isolates in a phylogenetic analysis. Four of the 18 strains may represent a new Vibrio species, distinct from V. navarrensis. The potential role of V. navarrensis in human disease needs further investigation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Carias C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Carias C.,IHRC Inc. | Greening B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Campbell C.G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

Background: After the detection of an Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa in 2014, one of the elements of the response was to contact trace and isolate patients in specialised Ebola treatment units (ETUs) at onset of fever. We aimed to assess the economic feasibility of administering preventive malaria treatment to all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease, to prevent the onset of febrile malaria and subsequent admission to ETUs. Methods: We used a decision tree model to analyse the costs of preventive malaria treatment (artemisinin-based combination treatment [ACT]) for all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease (in terms of administration and averted ETU-stay costs) and benefits (in terms of averted ETU admissions) in west Africa, from a health-care provider perspective. The period of analyses was 1 year, which is roughly similar to the duration of the 2014-15 west Africa Ebola outbreak response. We calculated the intervention's cost per ETU admission averted (average cost-effectiveness ratio) by season (wet and dry), country (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea), and age of contact (<5 years, 5-14 years, and ≥15 years). We did sensitivity analyses to assess how results varied with malaria parasite prevalence (in children aged 2-10 years), daily cost of ETU stay (for Liberian malaria incidence levels), and compliance and effectiveness of preventive malaria treatment. Findings: Administration of ACTs to contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease was cost saving for contacts of all ages in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, in both seasons, from a health-care provider perspective. In the wet season, preventive malaria treatment was estimated to reduce the probability of a contact being admitted to an ETU by a maximum of 36% (in Guinea, for contacts aged <5 years), and a minimum of 10% (in Guinea and Sierra Leone, for those aged ≥15 years). Assuming 85% compliance and taking into account the African population pyramid, the intervention is expected to be cost saving in contacts of all age groups in areas with malaria parasite prevalence in children aged 2-10 years as low as 10%. In Liberia during the wet season, malaria preventive treatment was cost saving even when average daily bed-stay costs were as low as US$5 for children younger than 5 years, $9 for those aged 5-14 years, and $22 for those aged 15 years or older. Interpretation: Administration of preventive malaria treatment to contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease should be considered by public health officials when addressing Ebola virus disease outbreaks in countries and seasons where malaria reaches high levels of transmission. Funding: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Joo H.,IHRC Inc. | Tong X.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | George M.G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Stroke | Year: 2015

Background and Purpose - Hospital costs associated with atrial fibrillation (AFib) among patients with stroke have not been well-studied, especially among people aged <65 years. We estimated the AFib-associated hospital costs in US patients aged 18 to 64 years. Methods - We identified hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of ischemic stroke from the 2010 to 2012 MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters inpatient data sets, excluding those with capitated health insurance plans, aged <18 or >64 years, missing geographic region, hospital costs below the 1st or above 99th percentile, and having carotid intervention (n=40 082). We searched the data for AFib and analyzed the costs for nonrepeat and repeat stroke admissions separately. We estimated the AFib-associated costs using multivariate regression models controlling for age, sex, geographic region, and Charlson comorbidity index. Results - Of the 33 500 nonrepeat stroke admissions, 2407 (7.2%) had AFib. Admissions with AFib cost $4991 more than those without AFib ($23 770 versus $18 779). For the 6582 repeat stroke admissions, 397 (6.0%) had AFib. The costs were $3260 more for those with AFib than those without ($24 119 versus $20 929). After controlling for potential confounders, AFib-associated costs for nonrepeat stroke admissions were $4905, representing 20.6% of the total costs for the admissions. Both the hospital costs and the AFib-associated costs were associated with age, but not with sex. AFib-associated costs for repeat stroke admissions were not significantly higher than for non-AFib patients, except for those aged 55 to 64 years ($3537). Conclusions - AFib increased the hospital cost of ischemic stroke substantially. Further investigation on AFib-associated costs for repeat stroke admissions is needed. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

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