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Saint-Mandé, France

Collilieux X.,IGN | Schmid R.,TU Munich
GPS Solutions | Year: 2013

We develop a method to evaluate the terrestrial reference frame (TRF) scale rate error using Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite antenna phase center offset (APCO) parameters and apply it to ITRF2008. We search for the TRF in which z-APCO parameters have the smallest drift. In order to provide realistic error bars for the z-APCO drifts, we pay attention to model periodic variations and auto-correlated noise processes in the z-APCO time series. We will show that the GPS scale rate with respect to a frame is, as a first approximation, proportional to the estimated mean z-APCO trend if that frame is used to constrain station positions. Thus, an ITRF2008 scale rate error between -0. 27 and -0. 06 mm/yr depending on the GPS analysis center can be estimated, which demonstrates the high quality of the newly constructed ITRF2008. We will also demonstrate that the traditional estimates of the GPS scale rate from 7-parameter similarity transformations are consistent with our newly derived GPS scale rates with respect to ITRF2008 within two sigmas. We find using International GNSS Service (IGS) products that the traditional approach is relevant for scale rate determination even if some of the z-APCO values supplied by the IGS were not simultaneously calibrated. As the scale rate is related to the accuracy of vertical velocities, our estimates supply a conservative evaluation that can be used for error budget computation. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Santamaria-Gomez A.,IGN | Santamaria-Gomez A.,University of La Rochelle | Gravelle M.,University of La Rochelle | Woppelmann G.,University of La Rochelle
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2014

We present a new approach to estimate precise long-term vertical land motion (VLM) based on double-differences of long tide gauge (TG) and short altimetry data. We identify and difference rates of pairs of highly correlated sea level records providing relative VLM estimates that are less dependent on record length and benefit from reduced uncertainty and mitigated biases (e.g. altimeter drift). This approach also overcomes the key limitation of previous techniques in that it is not geographically limited to semi-enclosed seas and can thus be applied to estimate VLM at TGs along any coast, provided data of sufficient quality are available. Using this approach, we have estimated VLM at a global set of 86 TGs with a median precision of 0.7 mm/year in a conventional reference frame. These estimates were compared to previous VLM estimates at TGs in the Baltic Sea and to estimates from co-located Global Positioning System (GPS) stations and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) predictions. Differences with respect to the GPS and VLM estimates from previous studies resulted in a scatter of around 0.6 mm/year. Differences with respect to GIA predictions had a larger scatter in excess of 1 mm/year. Until satellite altimetry records reach enough length to estimate precise VLM at each TG, this new approach constitutes a substantial advance in the geodetic monitoring of TGs with major applications in long-term sea level change and climate change studies. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Roux E.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Venancio A.F.,University of Brasilia | Girres J.-F.,IGN | Romana C.A.,University of Paris Descartes
Geospatial Health | Year: 2011

While the former part of this back-to-back paper dealt with the identification of multi-scale spatial patterns associated with the presence, abundance and dispersion of the insect vectors (Triatominae) of Chagas disease, this latter part examines the need for pattern characterisation by means of detailed data on environmental, residential, peri-domiciliary and human behaviour. The study site was, in both cases, a single village situated in Bahia, Brazil, wherefrom the data were collected through field observation and a standardised questionnaire, while the environmental characteristics were derived from satellite images and landscape characterisation. Following this, factorial analysis of mixed group (FAMG), an exploratory data analysis method, was applied to "mine" the huge dataset in a hierarchical way and to evaluate the relative impact of different factors such as the surrounding environment, the domiciliary/peri-domiciliary space properties and the presence of domestic animals. In the study village, five principal "districts" associated with different possible causes of infestation were identified. The results favour the role of depressions of the ground surface due to collapse of karstic subsoil (dolines) and open rock faces as infestation sources, vector attraction by outdoor lighting, risk of insect domiciliation in dwellings constructed without finishing materials and associated with apparent disorder. Ultimately, this study not only provides the basic information needed for decision-making and specification of vector control in the study village, but offers also a knowledge-base for more general control strategies in the region.

Roux E.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Venancio A.F.,University of Brasilia | Girres J.-F.,IGN | Romana C.A.,University of Paris Descartes
Geospatial Health | Year: 2011

Studies that explicitly and specifically take into account the spatial dimension within the study of eco-epidemiological systems remain rare. Our approach of modelling the spatial and/or temporal properties of the entomological and/or epidemiological data before their mapping with possible explanatory variables, objectively underline the significant patterns at different scales. The domiciliary and peri-domiciliary presence and abundance of juvenile and adult vectors of the Chagas disease (Triatoma sordida and Panstrongylus geniculatus) in Bahia state in northeast Brazil, has been modelled by automatically identifying significant multi-scale spatial patterns of the entomological data by the application and adaptation of the spatial modelling methodology proposed by Dray et al. (2006) and based on principal coordinate analysis of neighbour matrices. We found that entomological data can be modelled by a set of eigenvectors that present a significant Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation. The models for juvenile and adult vectors are defined by 28 and 32 eigenvectors that explain 82.3% and 79.9%, respectively, of the total data variances. The results support insect presence as the outcome both of a local scale "near-to-near" dispersal and an infestation from the wild, surrounding environment that produces a higher insect density at the village periphery.

Santamaria-Gomez A.,Instituto Geografico Nacional | Santamaria-Gomez A.,University of La Rochelle | Gravelle M.,University of La Rochelle | Collilieux X.,IGN | And 6 more authors.
Global and Planetary Change | Year: 2012

This study aims to correct for long-term vertical land motions at tide gauges (TG) by estimating high-accurate GPS vertical velocities at co-located stations (GPS@TG), useful for long-term sea-level change studies and satellite altimeter drift monitoring. Global Positioning System (GPS) data reanalyses are mandatory when aiming at the highest consistency of the estimated products for the whole data period. The University of La Rochelle Consortium (ULR) has carried out several GPS data reanalysis campaigns with an increasing tracking network, an improving processing strategy and the best methodology. The geodetic results from the latest GPS velocity field estimated at ULR (named ULR5) are presented here. The velocity field includes 326 globally distributed GPS stations, from which 200 are GPS@TG (30% more than previous studies). The new GPS data processing strategy, the terrestrial frame definition and the velocity estimation procedures are described. The quality of the estimated vertical velocities is empirically assessed through internal and external velocity comparisons, including the analysis of the time-correlated noise content of the position time series, to be better than 0.6. mm/yr (2 sigma). The application of this velocity field is illustrated to appraise to what extent vertical land motions contaminate the estimates of satellite altimetry drifts. The impact on the altimeter-derived sea level trends was evaluated to be up to 0.6. mm/yr. Worldwide TGs were grouped into regions in order to explore long-term spatial sea level variability in the rates of sea level change. By taking into account the vertical land motion of the tide gauges, the dispersion of the observed sea level rates within each region was reduced by 60%. Long-term regional mean sea level variations up to 70% from the global mean were found. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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