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Kumar V.,Manav Rachna International University | Kumar D.,Manav Rachna International University | Pooja,IGMC
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016

In this work, an attempt has been made to study the SIR model on swine flu, which produced by viral infection agent in Himachal Pradesh. The SIR model is analyzed on the numerical data obtained from IGMC, Shimla, H.P. This Mathematical model is based on ordinary differential equations for communicable disease. The concept of basic reproduction number R0 is used to analyze the stages of the disease. The result is helpful for health policy makers and reducing the number of deaths spread from the Swine flu. © Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2016.


Adiga U.,Assoc Profesor | Adiga S.,IGMC
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2011

Background: Case based learning (CBL) is a popular method of teaching in medical schools. The primary aim of implementing CBL in to the curriculum of medical schools is to expose the students to the real world problems and to prepare them to analyze, interpret and solve them. The objective of our study is to find the effectiveness of CBL compared to routine didactic lectures and to know whether CBL can be adopted as a regular method of learning in biochemistry curriculum. Methodology: In addition to didactic lectures, CBL was used as learning method in few topics like heme metabolism in fourth and lipoprotein metabolism in third semester exclusively. The effectiveness was assessed by comparing the post CBL and post lecture scores. Students' perception was assessed by a questionnaire which is validated by peers. Results: Mean scores were 67.3±1.8% and 65.7±1.7%, post CBL and post lecture respectively for the fourth semester and 76.1±1.2% and 74.3±1.9% respectively for third semester.P<0.001 suggested that post CBL grades were extremely significantly higher in both the semesters. Majority of the students (54%) opined that the case was appropriate and useful. 41% students found this method of learning very difficult.


Sumbria M.,IGMC | Negi P.C.,IGMC | Sahai A.K.,IGMC | Kaundal P.K.,IGMC
Indian Heart Journal | Year: 2014

Background Hypertension is often complicated by increased arterial stiffness and is an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcome. Beta blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly used antihypertensive agents. The effect of beta blockers and ARBs on arterial stiffness has not been compared adequately. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of telmisartan with metoprolol on arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients in prospective open label randomized parallel group intervention study. Methods 100 patients of hypertension, not on any antihypertensive agents, were enrolled after obtaining informed consent. Baseline recording of data related to demographics, CV risk factors, anthropometry and BP were made. Arterial stiffness was measured noninvasively by recording pulse wave velocity (PWV) using periscope (Genesis medical system). Left ventricular (LV) mass was measured using 2D guided M-mode echocardiography. Blood sugar, renal function, lipids and uric acid estimations were done in fasting state. Patients were randomized to receive metoprolol and telmisartan using stratified randomization technique. Dose of the study drugs were titrated to achieve target BP of <140/90 mmHg. Data related to PWV, BP, anthropometry and blood biochemistry was repeated after 6 months of treatment with study drugs. Results Telmisartan resulted in significantly greater reduction in arterial stiffness index (ASI) in left and right lower limb arterial bed (39.9 ± 11.7 vs. 46.8 ± 17.0 m/s, p < 0.02) and (36.4 ± 9.6 vs. 44.86 ± 15.1 m/s, p < 0.002) respectively and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-4.9 mmHg with 95% C.I. of -8.0-1.7 mmHg, p < 0.003) compared to metoprolol. Reduction in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in telmisartan and metoprolol groups was not different statistically (-1.0 mmHg with 95% C.I. of -3.3-1.2 mmHg, p < 0.3). The change in LV mass was not significantly different between the study groups (135.5 ± 37.6 vs. 143.2 ± 41.5, p < 0.3). © 2014, Cardiological Society of India. All rights reserved.


Verma S.,IGMC | Thakur S.,IGMC | Kanga A.,IGMC | Singh G.,IGMC | Gupta P.,IGMC
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

This retrospective study incorporates a six years, six months (January 2000-June 2006) laboratory data comprising 258 isolates of Salmonella. Cultures were identified by standard methods. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S.Typhi) was the more frequent serotype isolated i.e., 61.62% with the remaining 38.37% being Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A). There was emergence of S. Paratyphi A as the predominant serotype in 2003-2004 with resurgence of serotype Typhi thereon. A total of 66.27% isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. MDR S. Typhi was 10.69% and while 13.13% were MDR S. Paratyphi A. There was decrease in resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole in 2004 and nalidixic acid beyond 2005 and increase in resistance to cefuroxime. We also documented a decrease in resistance to ciprofloxacin after 2005.


Mahajan A.,IGMC | Kaushal K.,IGMC
Indian Journal of Community Health | Year: 2015

Introduction: Malnutrition permeates all aspects of health, growth, cognition, motor and social development of young children. Anganwari Worker (AWW) is a community based frontline honorary worker of the ICDS Programme. She is an agent of social change and capable of mobilizing community support for promotion of Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices, thereby helping to curb child malnutrition to a large extent. Rationale: The AWW is the key functionary who can appropriately guide the mothers regarding appropriate IYCF practices in the best possible way, provided she herself is well equipped with adequate knowledge. OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitude and beliefs of Anganwari workers regarding IYCF practices. Material & Methods: 100 AWWs were assessed for their knowledge, attitude and beliefs regarding IYCF practices. Both pre-test and post-test evaluations were done. Results: About 19% of the AWWs did not know the age up to which the child should be exclusively breastfed and 13% did not know about the age of introduction of complementary feeding. Only 47% of the AWWs knew about the “feeding on demand” concept. More than 90% of AWWs believed that colostrum should be given to the baby. None of the AWWs knew about the quantitative additional calorie, protein and calcium requirements in lactating mothers. There was significant difference (P<0.001) between mean pre test scores (19.48±1.98) and mean post-test knowledge scores (22.21±0.93) of Anganwari workers. Conclusion: Repetitive practical orientation programmes would help in increasing the knowledge of AWWs and improving their skills for implementation of correct IYCF norms. Efficient, coordinated and well-targeted approaches can bring about positive changes in child under nutrition. © 2015, Indian Association of Preventive and Social Medicine. All rights reserved.


Negi R.C.,IGMC | Chauhan V.,IGMC | Sharma B.,IGMC | Bhardwaj R.,IGMC | Thakur S.,IGMC
Journal of Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2013

Arial myxoma can present as stroke and should be considered as a differential diagnosis of stroke in young individuals. We present here a 42 years female who presented with sudden loss of conciousness. After extensive work up for young stroke, left atrial myxoma was detected and tumor was removed surgically and histopathological report was consistent with the atrial myxoma. © JAPI.


Fotedar V.,IGMC | Seam R.K.,IGMC | Gupta M.K.,IGMC | Gupta M.,IGMC | And 2 more authors.
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: Breast cancer is an increasing health problem in India. Screening for early detection should lead to a reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that motivation by nurses influences uptake of screening methods by women. This study aimed to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors & early detection methods and the practice of screening among nurses in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, early detection methods and practice of screening methods among 457 nurses working in a Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla-H.P. Chi square test, Data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Test of significance used was chi square test. Results: The response rate of the study was 94.9%. The average knowledge of risk factors about breast cancer of the entire population is 49%. 10.5% of nurses had poor knowledge, 25.2% of the nurses had good knowledge, 45% had very good knowledge and 16.3% of the nurses had excellent knowledge about risk factors of breast cancer and early detection methods. The knowledge level was significantly higher among BSC nurses than nurses with Diploma. 54% of participants in this study reportedly practice BSE at least once every year. Less than one-third reported that they had CBE within the past one year. 7% ever had mammogram before this study. Conclusions: Results from this study suggest the frequent continuing medical education programmes on breast cancer at institutional level is desirable.


Bodh A.,I.G.M.C. | Kaushal V.,I.G.M.C. | Kashyap S.,I.G.M.C. | Gulati A.,I.G.M.C.
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Year: 2013

Background: Examination of specimens obtained through flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope is an important and often the initial diagnostic technique performed in patients with suspected malignant lung lesion. Aims: To evaluate the correlation of cytological findings of bronchial washings, bronchial brushing and imprint smear of bronchial biopsy in the diagnosis of lung tumors, with histopathology of bronchial biopsy taking the latter as the confirmatory diagnostic test. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients with lung mass were included in the study. Bronchial brushings were obtained from all 200 cases. In the first 100 cases, pre-biopsy bronchial washing (washing collected before the brushing and biopsy procedure) while post-biopsy washing (washing at the end of the procedure) was procured in all 200 cases. Imprint smears of bronchial biopsy were prepared in 150 cases. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of brushing was 76.58% and 77.78% respectively and that of imprint smear was 81.35% and 78.12% respectively. Pre-biopsy and post-biopsy washing showed high specificity of 88.89%, but low sensitivity of 30.14 and 36.77% respectively. No significant difference was found in sensitivity between brushing and imprint smear (Chi-square; P = 0.4187); and between pre-biopsy and post-biopsy washing (Chi-square; P = 0.7982). However, there was a significant difference between sensitivity of brushing and washing (Chi-square; P = 0.0001). The sensitivity of combination of three cytological diagnostic techniques was 87.29%. Conclusion: Bronchial brushing and washing cytology in combination with imprint cytology aids in the diagnosis of lung tumors. Therefore, all these techniques may be used concurrently along with bronchial biopsy to diagnose lung tumors.


Bhagra S.,IGMC | Ganju S.A.,IGMC | Kanga A.,IGMC | Sharma N.L.,IGMC | Guleria R.C.,IGMC
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2014

Introduction: Dermatophytosis is defined as the fungal infection of the skin, hair and nails by a group of keratinophillic fungi known as dermatophytes. Aims and Objectives: This study is an attempt to find out various species of dermatophytes in clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis. Materials and Methods: One hundred samples were subjected to direct microscopy by potassium hydroxide wet mount (KOH) and isolation on culture with Sabourauds dextrose agar. Results: Out of these 80 (80%) samples were KOH positive while 20 (20%) were KOH negative. Overall culture positivity rate was 68%. Dermatophytosis was more common in males, the M:F ratio was 4:1. Conclusion: Total seven species were isolated on culture. Trichophyton rubrum (66.17%) was the commonest isolate followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (19.11%), Trichophyton violaceum (7.35%), Trichophyton tonsurans (2.94%) and one isolate each of Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum (1.47%).


Mokta K.K.,IGMC | Kanga A.K.,IGMC | Kaushal R.K.,IGMC
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Perinatal listerial infection is the most common clinical syndrome caused by Listeria monocytogenes and includes abortion, still birth, neonatal sepsis, and meningitis. Reports of listeriosis from India are limited. Sub Himalayan. We report a case of neonatal listeriosis from Himachal Pradesh. A two-day-old full term male baby was referred from a peripheral hospital with fever listlessness, skin rash and non-acceptance of feed. Ceftriaxone was already started as an empirical therapy. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of the baby, and also from the genital tract of the mother. Unfortunately, the baby died before the preliminary report could be communicated.

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