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Palo Alto, CA, United States

Shah J.S.,IGeneX Inc. | Horowitz R.,Hudson Valley Healing Arts Center | Harris N.S.,IGeneX Inc.
European Infectious Disease | Year: 2012

Lyme disease (LD), caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi complex, is the most frequently reported arthropod-borne infection in North America and Europe. The ticks that transmit LD also carry other pathogens. The two most common co-infections in patients with LD are babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. Human babesiosis is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia including Babesia microti, Babesia duncani, Babesia divergens, Babesia divergens-like (also known as Babesia MOI), Babesia EU1 and Babesia KO1. Ehrlichiosis includes human sennetsu ehrlichiosis (HSE), human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), human ewingii ehrlichiosis (HEE) and the recently discovered human ehrlichiosis Wisconsin-Minnesota (HWME). The resulting illnesses vary from asymptomatic to severe, leading to significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Clinical signs and symptoms are often non-specific and require the medical provider to have a high degree of suspicion of these infections in order to be recognised. In this article, the causative agents, geographical distribution, clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment protocols are discussed for both babesiosis and ehrlichiosis.

Shah J.,Id Fish Technology, Inc. | Shah J.,IGeneX Inc. | Mark O.,Id Fish Technology, Inc. | Mark O.,IGeneX Inc. | And 17 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Malaria is a responsible for approximately 600 thousand deaths worldwide every year. Appropriate and timely treatment of malaria can prevent deaths but is dependent on accurate and rapid diagnosis of the infection. Currently, microscopic examination of the Giemsa stained blood smears is the method of choice for diagnosing malaria. Although it has limited sensitivity and specificity in field conditions, it still remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria. Here, we report the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) based method for detecting malaria infection in blood smears and describe the use of an LED light source that makes the method suitable for use in resource-limited malaria endemic countries. The Plasmodium Genus (P-Genus) FISH assay has a Plasmodium genus specific probe that detects all five species of Plasmodium known to cause the disease in humans. The P. falciparum (PF) FISH assay and P. vivax (PV) FISH assay detect and differentiate between P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively from other Plasmodium species. The FISH assays are more sensitive than Giemsa. The sensitivities of P-Genus, PF and PV FISH assays were found to be 98.2%, 94.5% and 98.3%, respectively compared to 89.9%, 83.3%and 87.9% for the detection of Plasmodium, P. falciparum and P. vivax by Giemsa staining respectively.

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