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The present study was carried to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant role of sun, sulphited-dried apricot and its kernel against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. The hepatopreventive and antioxidant potential of the plant's supplementations were evaluated by measuring level of serum liver damage marker enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT and LDH), antioxidant defense systems (GSH, GR, SOD, GST and GPX) and MDA content in various tissues of rats. Eight experimental groups: I (control), II (20% ethanol), III (ethanol. +. 15% sun-dried apricot), IV (ethanol. +. 30% sun dried). V (ethanol. +. 15% sulphited-dried), VI (ethanol. +. 30% sulphited-dried), VII (ethanol. +. 15% kernel) and VIII (ethanol. +. 30% kernel). According to the results, the levels of serum enzymes increased significantly in the II group as compared to those of I group, but they decreased in the III, IV, V and VI groups as compared to those of II group. Also, administration of sun and sulphited-dried apricot supplementation restored the ethanol-induced imbalance between MDA and antioxidant system towards near normal particularly in tissues but not its kernel. It is concluded that apricot has a hepatoprotective effect in rats with ethanol, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defense systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Yilmaz O.,Igdir University | Ertugrul M.,Ankara University | Wilson R.T.,Bartridge Partners
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2012

Water buffalo are an ancient component of Turkey's domestic livestock resources. Commonly referred to as the Anatolian buffalo the animal is part of the Mediterranean group which includes Syrian, Egyptian and Southeast European animals. Once quite numerous, there have been drastic reductions in their numbers since the 1970s due to intensification of dairy activities, agricultural mechanization and changing consumer preferences. The main areas of distribution are in northwest Turkey in the Marmara and Black Sea Regions. Buffalo are kept in small herds by livestock and mixed crop-livestock farmers. Milk is the main product, meat is largely a by-product of the dairy function and provision of the once-important draught power is now a minor output. Buffalo milk is used to prepare a variety of speciality products but output of both milk and meat is very low in comparison to cattle. Conditions of welfare and health status are not optimal. Internal parasites are a constraint on productivity. Some buffalo are being used for conservation grazing in the Black Sea area to maintain optimal conditions for bird life in a nature reserve. Long neglected by government there are recent activities to establish conservation herds, set up in vitro banks and undertake molecular characterization. More effort is needed by government to promote buffalo production and to engage the general public in conservation of their national heritage. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Celik A.,Atatürk University | Altikat S.,Igdir University | Way T.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2013

Strip tillage is a conservation practice in which narrow strips, generally totaling less than 50% of the field area, are tilled. We hypothesized that strip tillage would be beneficial for long-term soil quality improvement, erosion control, and environmental protection because it also protects crop residues so they can cover and continuously protect the soil surface. A two-year field experiment with three replicates was conducted to quantify effects of three strip widths on selected soil physical properties, seed emergence and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). A powered row crop rotary hoe which is a group of narrow rotary tillers spaced evenly along the width of the toolbar and powered by the tractor power take-off was used to till soil in strips. The rotary hoe was equipped with C-type blades and was used to till strip widths of 37.5, 30 and 22.5cm by changing the blade position and number of flanges on each row of the rotary hoe. A constant rotor rotational speed (370rpm), forward tractor speed (5.4kmh-1) and tillage depth (10cm) were used to create the three strip widths that corresponded to tilled zones encompassing 50, 40, and 30% of the field area, respectively. A pneumatic seeder with 75cm row intervals was used for planting. The results show that as strip width increased, soil temperature increased but soil moisture content decreased due to evaporation loss from the tilled surface of the strips. Sunflower seed emergence ranged from 67 to 93%, with the lowest levels occurring with 22.5cm strips. Plant length and stalk diameter also increased as strip width increased. Seed yields for the two years also increased with strip width, averaging 4.4, 4.1, and 3.9Mgha-1 for the 37.5, 30 and 22.5cm strip widths, respectively. Based on these results, although seed yield was least for the 22.5cm strip width, tractor fuel efficiency was greatest for that width and the soil tended to retain more moisture for that width, compared to the 30 and 37.5cm widths, so the 22.5cm strip width is recommended to the eastern Turkey. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Toker O.S.,Igdir University | Toker O.S.,Yildiz Technical University | Dogan M.,Erciyes University | Ersoz N.B.,Yildiz Technical University | Yilmaz M.T.,Yildiz Technical University
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

In this study, the effect of different storage temperatures (25, 35 and 45°C) and storage times (0, 45 and 90 days) on physicochemical properties (color values, pH, and brix) and HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural) contents of grape, mulberry, black mulberry and carob molasses samples was studied. A two factor-three level composite face center design was performed to model and study effects of these factors on the HMF contents of these samples. As a result, storage temperature and time values were found to remarkably change the physicochemical properties and HMF contents. HMF content of the molasses samples increased with temperature and storage time. The highest HMF levels were generally observed in mulberry and black mulberry molasses. The best fitting second order polynomial models were developed using multiple linear regression analysis with backward elimination regression (BER) procedure to remove insignificant factors and interactions from the models. R2 values of the established models were higher than 0.844, indicating that models were adequate to predict HMF content. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Eyduran E.,Igdir University | Akbas Y.,Ege University
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2010

This study was conducted to compare performance of univariate and multivariate approaches used for analyzing experiments with repeated measurement and determine the best covariance structure for the data studied. In this study, univariate ANOVA, Geisser-Greenhouse Epsilon and Huynth-Feldt Epsilon were used as univariate approaches while profile analysis, Containment, Satterthwaite and Kenward-Roger approaches in general linear mixed model were applied as multivariate approaches. Annual amounts of wheat production from 65 provinces in seven geographical regions of Turkey from 1982 to 1999 were used as research material. A total of 1170 production values were obtained. In General Linear Model, nine various covariance structures (CS, CSH, UN, HF, AR (1), ARH (1), ANTE (1), TOEP and TOEPH) were applied. AIC and AICC criteria were used to determine the most appropriate covariance pattern for fitting data. In the study, "spherity assumption" for amounts of wheat production of provinces was violated. Application of Containment, Satterthwaite and Kenward-Roger approaches in general linear model and determination of covariance structure with the best fit were provided. According to AIC and AICC fitting criteria, it was determined that CS covariance structure gave the best fit to data set. As a result, covariance structure is compound symmetry (CS) in standard univariate ANOVA, and unstructured (UN) covariance structure in MANOVA. However, determination of the most appropriate covariance structure for data set is possible in multivariate general linear model. Containment, Satterthwaite, and Kenward-Roger approaches gave similar results since total sample size was sufficient. On the other hand, usage of Containment, Satterthwaite and Kenward-Roger approaches in analyzing experiments with repeated measurement were suggested to allow selection of the most suitable covariance structure for data set.


Toker O.S.,Igdir University | Toker O.S.,Yildiz Technical University | Dogan M.,Erciyes University
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2013

In this study, the effect of starch concentration (5, 7.5 and 10 %) and temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) on the creep and recovery behaviour of grape molasses was investigated. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and artificial neural network (ANN) models were established for the prediction of the compliance values (J(t)) based on temperature, starch concentration and time of the creep or recovery phases. The root mean square error, mean absolute error and R2 values were used for the comparison of the models which showed that the ANFIS model performed better than the ANN model for the desired purpose. The Burger model fitted the J(t) versus time data with R 2 values ranging from 0.987 to 0.999. Response surface methodology (RSM) was performed to investigate the dependency of the creep (G0, G1, n0 and n1) and recovery (JKV, B, C, Jmax, J∞ and % recovery) parameters to temperature and starch concentration. As a result of this study, it was observed that deformation of the grape molasses samples increased with decrease in starch concentration and increase in temperature. The gel strength (S) values of the samples were also calculated and modelled by RSM. As increase in starch concentration caused an increase in S value, there was an inverse proportion between the temperature and S value. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Kaya E.D.,Igdir University | Soyut H.,Bayburt University | Beydemir T.,Atatürk University
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Many studies have shown that metal ions may lead to oxidative stress in biological systems. Accordingly, DNA damage, protein modification, enzyme inhibition and activation, lipid peroxidation and many other effects may occur in living organisms. Many different formations of metal ions may enter human cells along with water, air, and various foods, and humans are negatively affected by these conditions, either directly or indirectly. These effects may cause irreversible damage to human metabolism. In this study, the toxicological effects of heavy metals on carbonic anhydrase enzyme activity from the gilthead sea bream liver were investigated. The carbonic anhydrase enzyme was purified via affinity chromatography and had a specific activity of 6775.5EUmg-1. The kinetics and characteristic properties, such as optimum pH, stable pH, optimum temperature, activation energy (Ea), activation enthalpy (δH), Q10, Km, and Vmax, were determined for the purified enzyme SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band and molecular weight of the subunit was approximately 25kDa. Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Ag(I) inhibited the enzyme activity in vitro. The type of inhibition and Ki values for these metals were calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots as 17.74mM, 36.20mM, 12.85mM and 0.025mM for Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Ag(I), respectively. All the metals were noncompetitive inhibitors. © 2013 The Authors.


Akkas O.,Igdir University
Türkiye parazitolojii dergisi / Türkiye Parazitoloji Derneǧi = Acta parasitologica Turcica / Turkish Society for Parasitology | Year: 2011

This study was carried out to detect the prevalence and evaluate risk factors of Pediculus capitis infestation in four primary schools in Iǧdir in April and May, 2010. The study was performed on 2222 students (6-15 years old), 1116 female and 1106 male. The hair of the students, especially from the neck and back of the head, were examined for egg, nymph and imago of P. capitis. The samples taken from the students were brought to the Medical Laboratory of Health Services Vocational School of Iǧdir University for examination. Each student answered a questionnaire containing some questions related to the infestation. The imago, nymph or eggs of the parasite were encountered in 22.9% of females and in 3.2% of males. Prevalence of infestation in all students was 13.1%. It was determined that there was a significant relation between head louse infestation and gender, socioeconomic status of the schools, hair length, number of people living in the home and the number of rooms in the house. In most comparisons, relations between prevalence of pediculosis capitis and education level, income level and job of the children's father and education level of the children's mother were found significant at different levels.


Karaoglu M.,Igdir University
Italian Journal of Agrometeorology | Year: 2014

This study determined the frost calendar of Turkey by using thresholds values for lowest air temperature (-4, -2, 0 °C), minimum grass temperature (0 °C) and daily average temperature (5 °C) of 81 meteorological stations for the reference period of 1978-2012. Critical periods (cold, the riskiest, the safest and the longest vegetative period) were revealed by determining the values of earliest and latest dates of minimum air temperature (0 °C), grass minimum temperature (0 °C) and daily average air temperature (5 °C) for spring and autumn. These critical periods were illustrated via schemas in order to make easy provide easy of use and comparison among stations. Two frost maps were drawn for Turkey by using the dates of late spring (0 °C) and early autumn (0 °C). According to the results obtained from frost calendar, critical periods and frost maps; Turkey is a country having a large variety of frost events. There are cold region stations which have only two frost-free months along with maritime stations where no frost event is observed throughout the year. Stations that have few frost events and shorter frost period compared to their surroundings, and stations which have more frost events and longer frost period are different on maps. The fact that hidden icing (taking place when grass minimum temperature is 0 °C or below) can occur at nearly mid-year is an important and serious problem for traffic and applied meteorology. The main results of this study are the determination of moderate and severe frost dates and frequencies, the dates of hidden icing, the length and variation of maximum growing season, and the maps of frost dates. All this information forms a relevant and useful set of tools for analysis and planning of farm activities. © 2014 Patron Editore S.r.l. All rights reserved.


The influence of the illumination wavelength on the electrical parameters of a vertical parallel junction silicon solar cell by its rear side is theoretically analyzed. Based on the excess minority carrier's density, the photocurrent density and photovoltage across the junction were determined. From both photocurrent and the photovoltage, the series and shunt resistance expressions are deduced and the solar cell associated capacitance and conversion efficiency are calculated.The aim of this study is to show the influence of the illumination wavelength on the electrical parameters of the cell and the behavior of both parasitic resistances and capacitance versus operating point. © 2016 The Author.

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