Stechlin, Germany
Stechlin, Germany

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Gardes A.,Jacobs University Bremen | Kaeppel E.,Jacobs University Bremen | Shehzad A.,Jacobs University Bremen | Seebah S.,Jacobs University Bremen | And 5 more authors.
Standards in Genomic Sciences | Year: 2010

Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 is the type strain of a newly identified marine species, which is phylogenetically related to M. flavimaris, M. algicola, and M. aquaeolei. It is of special in-terest for research on marine aggregate formation because it showed specific attachment to diatom cells. In vitro it led to exopolymer formation and aggregation of these algal cells to form marine snow particles. M. adhaerens HP15 is a free-living, motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium, which was originally isolated from marine particles sam-pled in the German Wadden Sea. M. adhaerens HP15 grows heterotrophically on various media, is easy to access genetically, and serves as a model organism to investigate the cellu-lar and molecular interactions with the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. Here we describe the complete and annotated genome sequence of M. adhaerens HP15 as well as some details on flagella-associated genes. M. adhaerens HP15 possesses three replicons; the chromosome comprises 4,422,725 bp and codes for 4,180 protein-coding genes, 51 tRNAs and three rRNA operons, while the two circular plasmids are ~187 kb and ~42 kb in size and contain 178 and 52 protein-coding genes, respectively.

Engel A.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Handel N.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Wohlers J.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Lunau M.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Plankton Research | Year: 2011

An experimental study was conducted to test the effects of projected sea surface warming (according to the IPPC scenarios) on the accumulation and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during marine phytoplankton blooms in cold seas (<4°C). Eight mesocosms (∼1400 L) were filled with natural seawater, and two replicate mesocosms each were incubated by raising temperature by +0, +2, +4 and +6°C, respectively. The enclosed water was initially fertilized with inorganic nutrients to induce the development of phytoplankton blooms, which were then dominated by diatoms. Over a 4-week period, dissolved combined carbohydrates (DCCHO) and dissolved amino acids (DAA) were determined as major components of freshly produced, labile to semi-labile DOM. In all mesocosms, the increase in DCCHO concentration occurred sharply after the peak of chlorophyll a concentration, when nutrients became depleted. Rising temperature resulted in an earlier, faster and higher accumulation of DCCHO and of combined glucose predominantly. DCCHO yielded a maximum percentage of 35, 40, 49 and 59 of total combined carbohydrates in the +0, +2, +4 and +6°C treatments, respectively. Accumulation of DAA occurred more continuously and at an average rate of 0.79 ± 0.20 nmol L-1 h-1, but was not affected by rising temperature. Owing to the higher accumulation of DCCHO, the C:N ratio of DOM increased strongly during the course of the bloom, with higher ratios in the warmer treatments. Our study suggests that warming increases the extracellular release of carbohydrates from phytoplankton and, therefore, may affect the bottom-up control of the microbial loop in cold seas in the future. © The Author 2010.

Engel A.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Engel A.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Piontek J.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Piontek J.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Plankton Research | Year: 2014

A mesocosm experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of rising fCO2 on the build-up and decline of organic matter during coastal phytoplankton blooms. Five mesocosms (∼38 m3 each) were deployed in the Baltic Sea during spring (2009) and enriched with CO2 to yield a gradient of 355-862 μatm. Mesocosms were nutrient fertilized initially to induce phytoplankton bloom development. Changes in particulate and dissolved organic matter concentrations, including dissolved high-molecular weight (>1 kDa) combined carbohydrates, dissolved free and combined amino acids as well as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), were monitored over 21 days together with bacterial abundance, and hydrolytic extracellular enzyme activities. Overall, organic matter followed well-known bloom dynamics in all CO2 treatments alike. At high fCO2, higher ΔPOC:ΔPON during bloom rise, and higher TEP concentrations during bloom peak, suggested preferential accumulation of carbon-rich components. TEP concentration at bloom peak was significantly related to subsequent sedimentation of particulate organic matter. Bacterial abundance increased during the bloom and was highest at high fCO2. We conclude that increasing fCO2 supports production and exudation of carbon-rich components, enhancing particle aggregation and settling, but also providing substrate and attachment sites for bacteria. More labile organic carbon and higher bacterial abundance can increase rates of oxygen consumption and may intensify the already high risk of oxygen depletion in coastal seas in the future. © 2014 The Author 2014.

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