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Kumar A.,IFTM University | Thakkar A.J.,University of New Brunswick
Chemical Physics Letters | Year: 2017

Dipole oscillator strength distributions for Br2 and BrCN are constructed from photoabsorption cross-sections combined with constraints provided by the Kuhn-Reiche-Thomas sum rule, the high-energy behavior of the dipole-oscillator-strength density and molar refractivity data when available. The distributions are used to predict dipole sum rules S(k), mean excitation energies I(k), and van der Waals C6 coefficients. Coupled-cluster calculations of the static dipole polarizabilities of Br2 and BrCN are reported for comparison with the values of S(-2) extracted from the distributions. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Pal D.,Guru Ghasidas University | Dubey P.,IFTM University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

The aim of this review is to obtain the report regarding beneficial health effects of flavonoids. Flavonoids are phenol substance isolated from a wide range of vascular plants, with over 8000 individual compound known. Flavonoids are secondary plant products.They are mainly found in fruits, vegetables and certain beverages that have diverse beneficial biochemical antioxidant effect. Flavonoids were originally referred to as "vitamin P". Their dietary intake is quite high compared to other dietary antioxidants like vitamins C and E. The major actions of flavonoids are those against cardiovascular diseases, ulcers, viruses, inflammation, osteoporosis, diarrhea and arthritis. Brief description about the disease causing effect of free radicals is given and ways by which flavonoids neutralize free radicals has also been mentioned. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids depends on their molecular structure, and structural characteristics of certain flavonoids found in hops and beer confer surprisingly potent antioxidant activity exceeding that of red wine, tea, or soy. Flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are often found in fruits and vegetables and they powerful anticancer agents. Antioxidants are the compounds that protects cell against the damaging effect of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals and peroxy nitrite. They also can protect LDL stickier and more likely to clog arteries. They also act as an anti-aging.


Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Pal D.,IFTM University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2012

This work investigates the development, optimization and in vitro evaluation of liquid paraffin-entrapped multiple-unit alginate-based floating system containing cloxacillin by emulsion-gelation method for gastro retentive delivery. The effect of process variables like drug to polymer ratio by weight, and liquid paraffin to water ratio by volume on various physicochemical properties in case of liquid paraffin-entrapped calcium alginate beads containing cloxacillin applicable to drug entrapment efficiency, density and drug release was optimized using 3 2 factorial design and analyzed using response surface methodology. The observed (actual values) responses were coincided well with the predicted values, given by the optimization technique. The optimized beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.63±0.78%, density of 0.90±0.05g/cm 3, and drug release of 56.72±0.85% in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) after 8h with floating lag time of 8.45min and floated well over 12h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). The average size of all dried beads ranged from 1.73±0.04 to 1.97±0.08mm. The beads were characterized by SEM and FTIR for surface morphology and excipients-drug interaction analysis, respectively. All these beads showed prolonged sustained release of cloxacillin over 8h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). The cloxacillin release profile from liquid paraffin beads followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model over a period of 8h with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism for drug release. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Hegde R.R.,IFTM University | Bhattacharya S.S.,IFTM University | Verma A.,IFTM University
Current Eye Research | Year: 2014

Purpose: Ocular drug delivery system always remained associated with lots of difficulties and faced issues of poor drug absorption and poor bioavailability. Timolol maleate is a nonspecific beta blocker used for reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in glaucoma. Timolol maleate is absorbed systemically and is contraindicated in asthmatic patients. This study is focused to deliver Timolol maleate by a water/oil microemulsion to extend the time of reduced intraocular pressure of glaucomatous rabbit's eye measured by using a schoetz tonometer. Methods: The microemulsion is prepared by mixing the oily components with two nonionic surfactants, drug and water, and evaluated for the physicochemical, in vitro and in vivo parameters. Results: The colloidal system demonstrates monodisperse distribution behavior and exhibits a uniform size distribution of finite width. In vitro drug release from microemulsion was found to follow Higuchi's pattern followed by a zero-order drug release by the emulsion. Ex vivo permeation through goat cornea revealed delayed release of Timolol maleate from microemulsion as compared with its aqueous solution. A reduction in intraocular pressure is seen lasting for 12h compared to aqueous eye drop that lasted for only 5h. Conclusion. In vivo reduction of intraocular pressure revealed a similar efficacy for once daily dosed 0.3% Timolol maleate in microemulsion formulation compared to 0.5% concentration in both microemulsion as well as aqueous formulation. The possible outcome of dose reduction will reduce the cardiovascular side effects generally reported with Timolol maleate eye drops. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


Khandai M.,P.A. College | Chakraborty S.,Pharmacy Development | Ghosh A.K.,IFTM University
Powder Technology | Year: 2014

The objective behind this study is to ameliorate the flowability, compressibility and tableting properties of aceclofenac by developing a prolonged release microparticulate system using an algino-carbopol polymeric blend. Prepared microspheres were subjected to various physico-chemical studies along with in vitro drug release studies to optimize the concentration of the polymeric blend required to sustain the drug release for 12. h. Optimize formulation was further subjected to different flowability and compressibility studies to observe the impact of microspheres on improvements of flow properties. All the microsphere formulations exhibited good entrapment efficiency and showed prolonged drug release. SEM study revealed that the microspheres were almost spherical in shape with rough outer surface containing small pores. The findings of micromeritic studies suggested that the flowability and compressibility properties of the pure drug were significantly improved by the microsphere formulation. Heckel analysis also suggested that the microspheres exhibited better plasticity and die filling behavior as compared to pure drug. The tablets containing optimized microspheric formulation showed better handling properties than pure drug and no significant difference in drug release when compared with the marketed product. So the present study concluded that encapsulation of aceclofenac into microparticulate system not only enhanced its flowability, compressibility and tableting properties but also simultaneously helped to improve the patient compliance by sustaining the drug release for a prolonged period of time to manage pain and its symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Mishra A.,IFTM University
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2013

The present study deals with standardization of an in-house standard preparation and three marketed samples of Brahmi vati, which is a traditional medicine known to be effective in mental disorders, convulsions, weak memory, high fever and hysteria. Preparation and standardization have been done by following modern scientific quality control procedures for raw material and the finished products. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis showed the reduction of metals and minerals (particle size range 2-5 μm) which indicates the proper preparation of bhasmas, the important ingredient of Brahmi vati. Findings of EDX analysis of all samples of Brahmi vati suggested the absence of Gold, an important constituent of Brahmi vati in two marketed samples. All the samples of Brahmi vati were subjected to quantitative estimation of Bacoside A (marker compound) by HPTLC technique. Extraction of the samples was done in methanol and the chromatograms were developed in Butanol: Glacial acetic acid: water (4.5:0.5:5 v/v) and detected at 225nm. The regression analysis of calibration plots of Bacoside A exhibited linear relationship in the concentration range of 50-300 ng, while the % recovery was found to be 96.06% w/w, thus proving the accuracy and precision of the analysis. The Bacoside A content in the in-house preparation was found to be higher than that of the commercial samples. The proposed HPTLC method was found to be rapid, simple and accurate for quantitative estimation of Bacoside A in different formulations. The results of this study could be used as a model data in the standardization of Brahmi vati.


Akhtar N.,IFTM University
Current Diabetes Reviews | Year: 2013

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease affecting wide range of people across the globe. In India the rate of subjects being suffered from diabetes is continuously increasing. So, the development of drugs for its effective treatment is essential. Thereby, various attempts have been made to discover newer drugs, to reduce the rate of anti diabetic occurrence. Anti-diabetic drugs were found to treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. Both the use antidiabetic drugs as well as the changes in lifestyle and proper diet can significantly affect the severity of diabetes mellitus and also reduces the symptoms and occurrence of the disease. Researches in the past few years on diabetes mellitus showed that this disease is spreading at a very faster rate, thereby; various attempts have been made to treat it efficaciously. Development and approval of antidiabetic drugs is quite necessary. There are different classes of anti-diabetic drugs reported to treat diabetes. The objective of the present review is to explore Invokana as a newly approved antidiabetic drug for the effective treatment of type 2 diabetes. This review focuses mainly on the various aspects of diabetes mellitus and its treatment perspectives. From the various clinical studies done on Invokana, it was concluded that and Invokana was found to be very effective for the efficacious therapy of diabetes mellitus. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.


Bhattacharya S.S.,IFTM University | Banerjee S.,Defence Research Laboratory
Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The main objective of this research work was to fabricate and evaluate adhesive matrix-type transdermal patches of buflomedil hydrochloride, employing different ratios of pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) by solvent casting technique. The adhesive matrix-type transdermal patches were evaluated by their in vitro physicochemical properties such as thickness, moisture content, weight variation, drug content uniformity, etc. The effects of PSAs ratio, drug loading, and concentration of permeation enhancer were evaluated thoroughly. Ex vivo skin permeation studies with kinetic modeling of adhesive matrix patches were systematically evaluated. Based on the above observations, the best optimized buflomedil hydrochloride-loaded adhesive matrix-type transdermal patch was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction study, and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. Drug containing adhesive matrix patches showed sustained release property without showing any incompatibility in adhesive matrix system. Hence, adhesive matrix-type transdermal patches of buflomedil hydrochloride can be used as a potential carrier for sustained transdermal delivery of hydrophilic drugs like buflomedil hydrochloride. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Garg A.,IFTM University | Upadhyay P.,IFTM University
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2012

Carrier technology provides an interesting as well as an intelligent approach for the delivery of drug. It offers delivery of drug by coupling the drug to a carrier particle such as microspheres, nanoparticles, liposomes, etc. Microspheres constitute an important part of this particulate drug delivery system because of their small size and other efficient properties. Mucoadhesive microspheres provide better drug absorption as they get adhere to the mucosal surface and release drug for prolonged time. This article reviewed about the mucoadhesive microspheres, their methods of preparation and their evaluation in brief.


Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Pal D.,IFTM University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2011

The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3 2 factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl 2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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