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Pal D.,Guru Ghasidas University | Dubey P.,IFTM University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

The aim of this review is to obtain the report regarding beneficial health effects of flavonoids. Flavonoids are phenol substance isolated from a wide range of vascular plants, with over 8000 individual compound known. Flavonoids are secondary plant products.They are mainly found in fruits, vegetables and certain beverages that have diverse beneficial biochemical antioxidant effect. Flavonoids were originally referred to as "vitamin P". Their dietary intake is quite high compared to other dietary antioxidants like vitamins C and E. The major actions of flavonoids are those against cardiovascular diseases, ulcers, viruses, inflammation, osteoporosis, diarrhea and arthritis. Brief description about the disease causing effect of free radicals is given and ways by which flavonoids neutralize free radicals has also been mentioned. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids depends on their molecular structure, and structural characteristics of certain flavonoids found in hops and beer confer surprisingly potent antioxidant activity exceeding that of red wine, tea, or soy. Flavonoids and proanthocyanidins are often found in fruits and vegetables and they powerful anticancer agents. Antioxidants are the compounds that protects cell against the damaging effect of reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide, peroxyl radicals and peroxy nitrite. They also can protect LDL stickier and more likely to clog arteries. They also act as an anti-aging.


Akhtar N.,IFTM University
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Transdermal delivery holds a promising carrier in the transport of drugs to get direct access across the skin deep into the systemic circulation. It has attracted many researchers due to various biomedical advantages. The barrier nature of stratum corneum poses a threat to the drug delivery. However, various attempts have been made to modify this property of the skin and thus, to improve the transdermal delivery. Delivery of drugs via transdermal route has proved to be the convenient route for various clinical implications. Due to the limitation of oral drug delivery and the pain related with the use of needles in case of injections, drug delivery research has tremendously oriented towards the transdermal route The objective of the present review is to focus on the recent innovations in transdermal drug delivery systems which can serve as a platform for the research and development of pharmaceutical drug dosage form for efficient transdermal delivery. It also focuses on the delivery of various therapeutic agents effectively via different carriers emphasizing mainly on the potential role of microneedles as transdermal system. Researches in the past few years showed that microneedles have emerged as a novel carrier and considered to be effective for improved and safe delivery of drugs. Thus, it was concluded that the development of microneedles created a new pathway in the field of drug delivery.


Pal D.,IFTM University | Banerjee S.,IFTM University | Ghosh A.K.,IFTM University
Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research | Year: 2012

Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system's response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.


Nagaich U.,Amity University | Gulati N.,Amity University | Gulati N.,IFTM University
Drug Delivery and Translational Research | Year: 2016

Nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC)-based gel was developed as a potential topical system for clobetasol propionate (CP) topical delivery for the treatment of eczema. The characterizations of the prepared NLC formulation for topical application on the skin were assessed by means of morphology (SEM), particle size distribution, zeta potential analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release studies to select the optimized NLC formulation. The optimized NLC formulation encompasses particle size of 137.9 nm with −20.5 mV zeta potential and 0.224 polydispersity index which indicates good stability of NLC dispersion. NLC formulation showed a good entrapment efficiency of 78.5 % ± 0.03 with cumulative in vitro release 85.42 % up to 24 h. The optimized NLC formulation was suitably gelled and characterized for rheology, drug content, ex vivo drug permeation studies, and drug release kinetics studies. The permeation study revealed that the permeability parameters like steady-state flux (Jss), permeability coefficient (Kp), and enhancement ratio were significantly higher for NLC-based gel formulation as compared to marketed formulation of clobetasol propionate. The value of r2 (Korsmeyer–Peppas equation) indicated good linearity showing anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion viz. drug release is controlled by more than one process, i.e., superposition of both phenomenon, the diffusion controlled as well as swelling controlled release. The anti-inflammatory activity of NLC gel via paw oedema technique showed a rapid onset of action, as well as a prolonged duration of action as compared with the marketed gel. © 2016, Controlled Release Society.


Pal D.,University of Sydney | Pal D.,IFTM University | Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science
AAPS PharmSciTech | Year: 2011

The purpose of this work was to develop and optimize gliclazide-loaded alginate-methyl cellulose mucoadhesive microcapsules by ionotropic gelation using central composite design. The effect of formulation parameters like polymer blend ratio and cross-linker (CaCl 2) concentration on properties of gliclazide-loaded alginate-methyl cellulose microcapsules like drug encapsulation efficiency and drug release were optimized. The optimized microcapsules were subjected to swelling, mucoadhesive, and in vivo studies. The observed responses coincided well with the predicted values from the optimization technique. The optimized microcapsules showed high drug encapsulation efficiency (83.57∈±∈2.59% to 85. 52∈±∈3.07%) with low T 50% (time for 50% drug release, 5.68∈±∈0.09 to 5.83∈±∈0.11 h). The in vitro drug release pattern from optimized microcapsules was found to be controlled-release pattern (zero order) with case II transport release mechanism. Particle sizes of these optimized microcapsules were 0.767∈±∈0.085 to 0.937∈±∈0.086 mm. These microcapsules also exhibited good mucoadhesive properties. The in vivo studies on alloxan-induced diabetic rats indicated the significant hypoglycemic effect that was observed 12 h after oral administration of optimized mucoadhesive microcapsules. The developed and optimized alginate-methyl cellulose microcapsules are suitable for prolonged systemic absorption of gliclazide to maintain lower blood glucose level and improved patient compliance. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.


Akhtar N.,IFTM University
Current Drug Delivery | Year: 2014

As skin is one of the crucial and important organs of the human body, delivering the drug across it requires an effective development in the field of research. Topical drug delivery system is specifically designed with the objective to accomplish the delivery of therapeutically active drugs across the skin. Though skin is considered to be a multifunctional organ of a human body, it has the limitation of lesser permeability across the stratum corneum. As this layer constitutes an effective barrier for the drugs, various carrier systems have been developed to overcome this barrier. Vesicular carriers are one of the recently invented carriers. Liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes and ethosomes constitute the major part of these vesicles that have been sufficiently employed for the treatment of variety of topical skin diseases. In the past few years various research reports on the development of topical carrier systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel vesicular carrier. These are considered to be effective enough for the enhanced and safe delivery of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. The present review focuses on the topical delivery via these vesicles, emphasizing on various aspects of all these carriers. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Akhtar N.,Rajiv Academy for Pharmacy | Verma A.,IFTM University | Pathak K.,Rajiv Academy for Pharmacy
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2015

The prevalence of fungal infections of skin has increased rapidly, affecting approximately 40 million people across the globe. A wide variety of antifungal drugs has been utilized in the effective management of numerous dermatological infections. Topical treatment of fungal infections has proved to be quite advantageous due to various factors like targeting the site of infection, minimizing systemic side effects, enhanced efficacy of treatment, and improved patient compliance. In spite the fact that these agents are therapeutically active on topical application, these have restricted drug delivery across the skin resulting in insufficient therapeutic index and may exert local as well as systemic side effects. The accomplishment of topical drug delivery needs to pacify two anomalous aspects, first the barrier nature of stratum corneum, and second, deposition of drug within the skin should be ideally achieved with limited percutaneous absorption. Thus, to facilitate the delivery of antifungal drugs and improve the treatment aspects, various novel delivery carriers have been developed. This article attempts to provide an in-depth knowledge of nanoparticulate and vesicular carriers. This article focuses on the different aspects of fungal infections and their effective treatment with antifungal drugs. Efficacy of various carrier systems (nanoparticulate and vesicular carriers) in delivering antifungal drugs topically has also been discussed. Besides, compiling various research reports, this article also includes formulation considerations inclusive of regulatory aspects of excipients used, the mechanisms of penetration, and patents reported. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.


Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Pal D.,IFTM University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2012

This work investigates the development, optimization and in vitro evaluation of liquid paraffin-entrapped multiple-unit alginate-based floating system containing cloxacillin by emulsion-gelation method for gastro retentive delivery. The effect of process variables like drug to polymer ratio by weight, and liquid paraffin to water ratio by volume on various physicochemical properties in case of liquid paraffin-entrapped calcium alginate beads containing cloxacillin applicable to drug entrapment efficiency, density and drug release was optimized using 3 2 factorial design and analyzed using response surface methodology. The observed (actual values) responses were coincided well with the predicted values, given by the optimization technique. The optimized beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.63±0.78%, density of 0.90±0.05g/cm 3, and drug release of 56.72±0.85% in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) after 8h with floating lag time of 8.45min and floated well over 12h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). The average size of all dried beads ranged from 1.73±0.04 to 1.97±0.08mm. The beads were characterized by SEM and FTIR for surface morphology and excipients-drug interaction analysis, respectively. All these beads showed prolonged sustained release of cloxacillin over 8h in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2). The cloxacillin release profile from liquid paraffin beads followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model over a period of 8h with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism for drug release. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Mishra A.,IFTM University
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2013

The present study deals with standardization of an in-house standard preparation and three marketed samples of Brahmi vati, which is a traditional medicine known to be effective in mental disorders, convulsions, weak memory, high fever and hysteria. Preparation and standardization have been done by following modern scientific quality control procedures for raw material and the finished products. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis showed the reduction of metals and minerals (particle size range 2-5 μm) which indicates the proper preparation of bhasmas, the important ingredient of Brahmi vati. Findings of EDX analysis of all samples of Brahmi vati suggested the absence of Gold, an important constituent of Brahmi vati in two marketed samples. All the samples of Brahmi vati were subjected to quantitative estimation of Bacoside A (marker compound) by HPTLC technique. Extraction of the samples was done in methanol and the chromatograms were developed in Butanol: Glacial acetic acid: water (4.5:0.5:5 v/v) and detected at 225nm. The regression analysis of calibration plots of Bacoside A exhibited linear relationship in the concentration range of 50-300 ng, while the % recovery was found to be 96.06% w/w, thus proving the accuracy and precision of the analysis. The Bacoside A content in the in-house preparation was found to be higher than that of the commercial samples. The proposed HPTLC method was found to be rapid, simple and accurate for quantitative estimation of Bacoside A in different formulations. The results of this study could be used as a model data in the standardization of Brahmi vati.


Nayak A.K.,Seemanta Institute of Pharmaceutical science | Pal D.,IFTM University
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2011

The present study deals with the development of novel pH-sensitive tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP)-alginate composite beads for controlled diclofenac sodium delivery using response surface methodology by full 3 2 factorial design. The effect of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TSP) and cross-linker (CaCl 2) concentration on the drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, %) and drug release from diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads prepared by ionotropic gelation was optimized. The observed responses were coincided well with the predicted values by the experimental design. The DEE (%) of these beads containing diclofenac sodium was within the range between 72.23±2.14 and 97.32±4.03% with sustained in vitro drug release (69.08±2.36-96.07±3.54% in 10h). The in vitro drug release from TSP-alginate composite beads containing diclofenac sodium was followed by controlled-release pattern (zero-order kinetics) with case-II transport mechanism. Particle size range of these beads was 0.71±0.03-1.33±0.04mm. The swelling and degradation of the developed beads were influenced by different pH of the test medium. The FTIR and NMR analyses confirmed the compatibility of the diclofenac sodium with TSP and sodium alginate used to prepare the diclofenac sodium loaded TSP-alginate composite beads. The newly developed TSP-alginate composite beads are suitable for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium for prolonged period. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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