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Salon-de-Provence, France

Paxion J.,IFSTTAR LMA | Galy E.,Aix - Marseille University | Berthelon C.,IFSTTAR LMA
Applied Ergonomics | Year: 2015

The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of situation complexity and driving experience on subjective workload and driving performance, and the less costly and the most effective strategies faced with a hazard pedestrian crossing. Four groups of young drivers (15 traditionally trained novices, 12 early-trained novices, 15 with three years of experience and 15 with a minimum of five years of experience) were randomly assigned to three situations (simple, moderately complex and very complex) including unexpected pedestrian crossings, in a driving simulator. The subjective workload was collected by the NASA-TLX questionnaire after each situation. The main results confirmed that the situation complexity and the lack of experience increased the subjective workload. Moreover, the subjective workload, the avoidance strategies and the reaction times influenced the number of collisions depending on situation complexity and driving experience. These results must be taken into account to target the prevention actions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. Source

Gueho L.,IFSTTAR LMA | Granie M.-A.,IFSTTAR LMA | Abric J.-C.,Aix - Marseille University
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to validate a new version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) on a sample of French drivers in order to gain a better understanding of different driver behaviors, by differentiating two types of violations (aggressive and ordinary), three types of errors (dangerous, inattention and inexperience) and by taking positive behaviors into account. 525 drivers (205 men and 320 women), between 18 and 79 years of age, filled in a questionnaire on line including the 41 items in the new version of the DBQ and information relative to their mobility and their accident history. Exploratory factor analysis confirmed a six-factor structure: "dangerous errors", "inattention errors", "inexperience errors", "ordinary violations", "aggressive violations" and "positive behaviors". A revised version with 23 items of the new version of the DBQ was produced by selecting the items that loaded most strongly on the six factors. The results also showed the link between demographic variables (age and gender), mobility (kilometers driven weekly), the DBQ scores and the involvement in an accident in the previous five years. This study permitted to validate a more detailed version of the "Driving Behavior Questionnaire" among French drivers of all age and all level of experience. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Granie M.-A.,IFSTTAR LMA | Brenac T.,IFSTTAR LMA | Montel M.-C.,IFSTTAR LMA | Millot M.,CETE Mediterranee | Coquelet C.,IFSTTAR LMA
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2014

The objective of this experimental study is to identify the differentiation made by pedestrians, in their crossing decision, between various urban environments, notably in terms of perception of walking pleasantness and safety. This experiment further aims to identify the environmental features that pedestrians take into account and the inferences they develop and use to explain their road crossing decision. Sets of photographs presenting five different environments (city center, inner suburbs, public housing in the outskirts, commercial zone in the outskirts and countryside) were presented to 77 participants divided up into three age groups (pre-adolescents, young and middle adults). Their decision to cross or not, their perception of pleasantness and safety, and the elements they take into account to make a decision were collected for each environment presented. The quantitative results show the pedestrians' perceptions of the pleasantness and safety of public spaces, in terms of walking, largely vary with urban environments. Moreover, the crossing decision significantly varies according to the environment. Pedestrians were significantly more inclined to take the decision to cross in city center than in the other sites presented. The qualitative analysis of the interviews shows that the presence and function of the buildings, the quality of the sidewalks and the marked parking spaces are key factors to explain their crossing decision, by enabling them to infer the density of pedestrians and traffic and the vehicle speed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hamdane H.,Aix - Marseille University | Hamdane H.,University of Adelaide | Serre T.,IFSTTAR LMA | Anderson R.,University of Adelaide | And 2 more authors.
2014 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury | Year: 2014

Primary safety systems have been developed for vehicles in order to detect a pedestrian and to avoid or mitigate an impact autonomously. This work aims to estimate the safety potential of six Active Pedestrian Safety Systems (APSS) from a sample of 100 real vehicle/pedestrian crashes provided by in-depth crash investigation. The accident cases were first reconstructed by emulating the kinematics of the vehicle and the pedestrian. These simulations provided a comprehensive set of data describing the interaction between the vehicle and the pedestrian over a crash sequence. Then, four particular pre-crash events on the timeline were selected as fields of interest with respect to performance characteristics of APSS. They correspond respectively to 2.5s before the impact, the instant when the pedestrian is visible (pedestrian steps into the field of view of the sensor), the last moment for the vehicle to brake in order to stop before impact and one second before the impact. For each of these instants and for each of the six selected APSS, it was evaluated if the systems could detect the pedestrian according to the different attributes of these systems. Results allow describing the required performance of an APSS and understanding the issues and challenges in pedestrian safety. Source

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