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Bueno M.,IFSTTAR LESCOT | Bueno M.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Bueno M.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Fort A.,IFSTTAR LESCOT | And 6 more authors.
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2013

Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) are expected to assist drivers; however, it is not completely clear whether these systems are of benefit to distracted drivers as much as they are to undistracted drivers. This study aims at investigating further the analysis of the effectiveness of a surrogate FCWS according to the attentional state of participants. In this experiment electrophysiological and behavioural data were recording while participants were required to drive in a simple car simulator and to react to the braking of the lead vehicle which could be announced by a warning system. The effectiveness of this warning system was evaluated when drivers were distracted or not by a secondary cognitive task. In a previous study, the warning signal was not completely effective likely due to the presence of another predictor of the forthcoming braking which competes with the warning. By eliminating this secondary predictor in the present study, the results confirmed the negative effect of the secondary task and revealed the expected effectiveness of the warning system at behavioural and electrophysiological levels. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Bellet T.,IFSTTAR LESCOT | Bornard J.-C.,IFSTTAR LESCOT | Mayenobe P.,IFSTTAR LESCOT | Paris J.-C.,IFSTTAR LESCOT | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cognitive Modeling, ICCM 2012 | Year: 2012

This paper presents a computational modeling approach for negative effects simulation of visual distraction while driving a car. In order to investigate these effects, an experiment was firstly implemented on a driving simulator. Twenty participants were invited to perform a car following task in different driving conditions (12 driving scenarios), with or without a secondary task of visual distraction. Empirical data collected through this experiment show that visual distraction negatively impacts the driving performance at both perceptive and behavioral levels, and then increase the risk of having a crash. Beyond these effects on the observable performance, the aim of this study is also to investigate and simulate these distractive effects on mental models of the road environment. Indees, driver's decisiona and behaviours are based on a temporal-spatial mental model, corresponding to the driver's (situation awareness (SA). This mental representation must be permanently updated by perceptive information extracted from the road scene to be efficient. In case of visual distraction requiring off-road scanning, mental model updating is imperfectly done and driver's actions are thus based on a mental representation the can dramatically differ from the situational reality, in case of a critical change in the traffic conditions (e.g. sudden braking of the lead car). From these empirical results, a computational model (named COSMODRIVE for COgnitive Simulation MOdel of the DRIVEr) was implemented for simulating visual distraction effects and human errors risks at perceptive (visual scanning changes) cognitive (erroneous Situation Awareness) and behavioral levels (late reaction time and crash risk increasing).

Pauzie A.,Ifsttar Lescot
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2015

In the context of automotive, Human Systems Interactions Design is a great challenge, taking into account the road safety issues and the complexity of the driving task under high time constraint. To support this task, existing on-board systems display mainly visual messages, forcing the drivers to move their eyes away from the road. This paper presents an overview of studies related to drivers’ perception and cognition when this information is displayed on the windshield (Head-Up Display or HUD), as it can be a solution to reduce the duration and frequency drivers look away from the traffic scene. Nevertheless, HUD might have also shortcomings raising new critical contexts, which are discussed. The Augmented Reality (AR) concept is also presented, as this solution can bear HUD potential drawbacks such as the risk of occluding relevant objects of traffic as well as phenomena like perception tunneling and cognitive capture. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures | Year: 2016

This paper presents a new approach to driving experimentation, based on cognitive simulation of the driver in order to predict human behaviour. The cognitive model COSMODRIVE (i.e. COgnitive Simulation MOdel of the DRIVEr) has been combined with a Vehicle-Environment-Sensors platform (named SiVIC, for Simulateur Vehicule-Infrastructure-Capteur) in order to simulate, explain and predict the driver's behaviour and mental activities. From the simulation of left turn manoeuver, an experiment has been conducted at IFSTTAR - LESCOT, where a hypothesis has been made with the simulation done by COSMODRIVE. The innovative approach is the use of a virtual simulation of a cognitive model to predict human behaviour and then analyse collected data to validate the predicted behaviour. This article describes broadly the COSMODRIVE model and the simulation made in order to define accurate experimental hypotheses. Then, we describe the driving simulator and the experiment itself. Afterwards, data analysis provides us some results allowing us to discuss and conclude about the methodology tested with this experiment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Etienne V.,IFSTTAR LESCOT | Marin-Lamellet C.,IFSTTAR LESCOT | Laurent B.,CHU Bellevue Service Neurologie
IATSS Research | Year: 2013

After memory impairment, one of the most common troubles of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the impairment of executive functioning. However, it can have major consequences on daily life, notably on the driving activity. The present study focused on one important executive function involved in driving: mental flexibility; and considered how this impairment can affect driving. Ten patients with early AD were matched with 29 healthy older drivers. All participants were given an evaluation of mental flexibility through neuropsychological tests and an experimental test developed on a static driving simulator. The experiment was divided in two conditions; one without mental flexibility and another condition with a mental flexibility demand. AD patients showed impairments in the neuropsychological tests evaluating mental flexibility. These deficits are linked to the deficits they showed in the driving simulator flexibility tests. This study contributes to the understanding of mental flexibility mechanisms and on their role in driving activity. It also confirms that the driving simulator is a suitable tool to explore cognitive disorders and driving ability. © 2013 International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences.

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