Bruyelle J.-L.,IFSTTAR ESTAS |
O'Neill C.,Northumbria University |
El-Koursi E.-M.,IFSTTAR ESTAS |
Hamelin F.,IFSTTAR DEST |
And 2 more authors.
Safety Science | Year: 2014
In the framework of the European FP7 project SecureMetro, the authors have studied the occurrences of terrorist attacks against rail-based vehicles, in particular Underground trains, with the goal to reduce the number of attacks by making transport systems a less attractive target. Many counter-measures have already been implemented in a multi-layered manner to increase the resilience to terrorism, such as depot security, detection of explosives or passenger screening. The SecureMetro project adds another layer aimed at mitigating the effects of an attack to the vehicles, should the other layers fail to avoid it. The case of interest, a metro train blocked in a tunnel due to a bombing, has been chosen as representative of the attacks perpetrated in the recent years, and of the most difficult case to cope with. Based on the experience of the 7/7 London bombings and other emergency situations, as well as the currently admitted behaviour models, this paper identifies critical systems and proposes improvements to the design of metro coaches, in order to improve the management of the emergency situation, assist the evacuation and rescue to passengers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Hammadou H.,Lille University of Science and Technology |
Papaix C.,IFSTTAR DEST
Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment | Year: 2015
This paper proposes different policy scenarios to cut CO2 emissions caused by the urban mobility of passengers. More precisely, we compare the effects of the 'direct tool' of carbon tax, to a combination of 'indirect tools' - not originally aimed at reducing CO2 (i.e. congestion charging, parking charges and a reduction in public transport travel time) in terms of CO2 impacts through a change in the modal split. In our model, modal choices depend on individual characteristics, trip features (including the effects of policy tools), and land use at origin and destination zones. Personal "CO2 emissions budgets" resulting from the trips observed in the metropolitan area of Lille (France) in 2006 are calculated and compared to the situation related to the different policy scenarios. We find that an increase of 50% in parking charges combined with a cordon toll of €1.20 and a 10% travel time decrease in public transport services (made after recycling toll-revenues) is the winning scenario. The combined effects of all the policy scenarios are superior to their separate effects. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Pirotte A.,Pantheon-Assas Paris II University |
Madre J.-L.,IFSTTAR DEST
Urban Studies | Year: 2011
This paper studies the determinants of urban sprawl in France using panel datasets for the four largest metropolitan areas (Paris, Lyon, Marseille, Lille) over the period 1985-98. A measure of urban sprawl is proposed at municipality level. Due to the huge heterogeneity of the panels, it seems difficult to make the fundamental homogeneity assumption underlying pooled models. Thus, random coefficient models under heteroscedasticity of the disturbances are estimated for each metropolitan area using a hierarchical Bayes approach based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation method. It is found that urban sprawl is positively related to the income growth of the tax payers' fiscal households for the period of rapid growth in the late 1980s. At the opposite extreme, the income effects are negative for non-tax payers. During the recession, income effects are significant neither for tax payers' nor for non-tax payers' fiscal households and are significantly positive for tax payers and negative for non-tax payers over the recovery. Finally, on average, the inequality index-difference of average net income between tax payers and exempted fiscal households-has a lower impact on urban sprawl than the income effect. © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited.
Pirotte A.,IFSTTAR DEST |
Madre J.-L.,IFSTTAR DEST
Journal of Transport Economics and Policy | Year: 2011
This paper revisits the elasticities of car traffic using a panel dataset of the twenty-one French regions over the period 1973-99 considering spatial interdependences. Two spatial specifications including random or fixed effects are retained. These models have been estimated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) as an iterative two-stage procedure. We find that significant spatial interdependences characterise the regional car traffic per vehicle. Following the spatial specifications, direct elasticities with respect to kilometres driven for the price of motor fuels fall in the range -0.14 to -0.09. The other elasticities vary respectively from 0.30 to 0.57 for household income per capita, and from -0.54 to -0.28 for the number of cars per capita, confirming that there are more and more cars, but that each car is less and less used.