Flori L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Flori L.,French Atomic Energy Commission |
Flori L.,Agro ParisTech |
Gao Y.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 26 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Background: Increasing robustness via improvement of resistance to pathogens is a major selection objective in livestock breeding. As resistance traits are difficult or impossible to measure directly, potential indirect criteria are measures of immune traits (ITs). Our underlying hypothesis is that levels of ITs with no focus on specific pathogens define an individual's immunocompetence and thus predict response to pathogens in general. Since variation in ITs depends on genetic, environmental and probably epigenetic factors, our aim was to estimate the relative importance of genetics. In this report, we present a large genetic survey of innate and adaptive ITs in pig families bred in the same environment. Methodology/Principal Findings: Fifty four ITs were studied on 443 Large White pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and analyzed by combining a principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic parameter estimation. ITs include specific and non specific antibodies, seric inflammatory proteins, cell subsets by hemogram and flow cytometry, ex vivo production of cytokines (IFNα, TNFα, IL6, IL8, IL12, IFNγ, IL2, IL4, IL10), phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. While six ITs had heritabilities that were weak or not significantly different from zero, 18 and 30 ITs had moderate (0.1
Michalski M.C.,INSA Lyon |
Genot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Gayet C.,CNIEL |
Lopez C.,Agrocampus Ouest |
And 7 more authors.
Progress in Lipid Research | Year: 2013
On a nutritional standpoint, lipids are now being studied beyond their energy content and fatty acid (FA) profiles. Dietary FA are building blocks of a huge diversity of more complex molecules such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL), themselves organised in supramolecular structures presenting different thermal behaviours. They are generally embedded in complex food matrixes. Recent reports have revealed that molecular and supramolecular structures of lipids and their liquid or solid state at the body temperature influence both the digestibility and metabolism of dietary FA. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent knowledge on the impact on FA digestion, absorption and metabolism of: (i) the intramolecular structure of TAG; (ii) the nature of the lipid molecules carrying FA; (iii) the supramolecular organization and physical state of lipids in native and formulated food products and (iv) the food matrix. Further work should be accomplished now to obtain a more reliable body of evidence and integrate these data in future dietary recommendations. Additionally, innovative lipid formulations in which the health beneficial effects of either native or recomposed structures of lipids will be taken into account can be foreseen. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sanchez M.-P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Tribout T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Iannuccelli N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Bouffaud M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
And 10 more authors.
Genetics Selection Evolution | Year: 2014
Background: Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected in pigs over the past 20 years using microsatellite markers. However, due to the low density of these markers, the accuracy of QTL location has generally been poor. Since 2009, the dense genome coverage provided by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip has made it possible to more accurately map QTL using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our objective was to perform high-density GWAS in order to identify genomic regions and corresponding haplotypes associated with production traits in a French Large White population of pigs. Methods. Animals (385 Large White pigs from 106 sires) were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and evaluated for 19 traits related to feed intake, growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Of the 64 432 SNPs on the chip, 44 412 were used for GWAS with an animal mixed model that included a regression coefficient for the tested SNPs and a genomic kinship matrix. SNP haplotype effects in QTL regions were then tested for association with phenotypes following phase reconstruction based on the Sscrofa10.2 pig genome assembly. Results: Twenty-three QTL regions were identified on autosomes and their effects ranged from 0.25 to 0.75 phenotypic standard deviation units for feed intake and feed efficiency (four QTL), carcass (12 QTL) and meat quality traits (seven QTL). The 10 most significant QTL regions had effects on carcass (chromosomes 7, 10, 16, 17 and 18) and meat quality traits (two regions on chromosome 1 and one region on chromosomes 8, 9 and 13). Thirteen of the 23 QTL regions had not been previously described. A haplotype block of 183 kb on chromosome 1 (six SNPs) was identified and displayed three distinct haplotypes with significant (0.0001 < P < 0.03) associations with all evaluated meat quality traits. Conclusions: GWAS analyses with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip enabled the detection of 23 QTL regions that affect feed consumption, carcass and meat quality traits in a LW population, of which 13 were novel QTL. The proportionally larger number of QTL found for meat quality traits suggests a specific opportunity for improving these traits in the pig by genomic selection. © 2014 Sanchez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Farming and breeding goals for sustainable animal breeding - Views and expectations of stakeholders from the production chains and the general public [Attentes en matière d'élevage des acteurs de la sélection animale, des filières de l'agroalimentaire et des associations]
Dockes A.-C.,Institute Of Lelevage |
Magdelaine P.,ITAVI |
Daridan D.,IFIP |
Guillaumin A.,Institute Of Lelevage |
And 6 more authors.
Productions Animales | Year: 2011
To contribute to the management of European farm animal genetic resources in Europe, the project «COSADD» identified and tested relevant sustainable breeding goals, according to the preferences of the food chain and general public stakeholders. Four species - cattle, fish, pigs and poultry - were studied, as representatives of the diversity of meat production systems and breeding schemes. In 2008 and 2009 about 60 semi-guided interviews were carried out with representatives of the breeding schemes, agro-industrial actors, retailers and representatives of general public NGOs (consumers, animal and environment protection). Stakeholders' priorities were analyzed in both current economic and sustainable development contexts. The interviewees from the economic sector shared some views: the priority of the economic and marketing aspects, the necessity to produce animals, both easy to raise and resilient to sanitary risks. Environment and animal welfare were also important traits even if considered as external demands. However, many differences in priorities were associated with the specificities of each species' production system (intensive, linked to the soil, or not in both cases) and breeding schemes (private or public). The representatives of general public NGOs focused on public views and expectations toward animal production, definition of sustainable development and opinion on some controversial questions about the relationships between animal production and environment or animal welfare. Two different paradigms are in fact described, even if many people think that both will coexist through the next decade. On the one hand, a «green growth» paradigm, productive but respecting strict regulations; and on the other hand an «alternative and extensive» one, with quality schemes and a lower level of meat consumption.
Hocquette J.-F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Hocquette J.-F.,VetAgro Sup |
Capel C.,Institute Of Lelevage |
David V.,Institute Of Lelevage |
And 11 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2012
Providing phenotypic information, which is accurate, reliable, repeatable and comparable across countries or laboratories, is critical to gain a better understanding of the relationship between genes and phenotypes. So far, it is indeed extremely difficult to combine different sources of phenotypic data from multiple origins, partly because of the variability in the methods of phenotyping. The phenotyping program of livestock involves the definition of complex phenotypes obtained from data integration at different levels (from molecules to herds), the implementation of the latest technologies to accurately characterize at high speed and low cost, the greatest number of animals in a better characterized environment, and the development and sharing of large databases for data analysis and modeling. Such a program also involves the construction of a coordinated network of research and professional facilities and a common language with shared definition of unambiguous animal traits and of methods to assess them. To this end, it will build on the 'Animal Trait Ontology of Livestock' (ATOL) project with the objective of defining precisely the phenotypes of interest for farm animals. Then, it will be necessary to combine an environmental information system related to animal husbandry and associated methods to capture the phenotypic differences between animals. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
PubMed | Plate Forme dInnovations Nouvelles Vagues, Aerial, ADIV, ACTALIA and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The ISME journal | Year: 2015
The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 18958 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 2712 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota.
Panella-Riera N.,IRTA Monells |
Blanch M.,IRTA Monells |
Kallas Z.,CREDA |
Chevillon P.,IFIP |
And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2016
Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n = 126) and United Kingdom (n= 146), and test 2 performed in France (n = 139) and Italy (n = 140). Each test had 3 types of pork: 'Female meat', 'Low boar tainted meat', and a third type was 'Medium boar tainted meat' or 'High boar tainted meat'. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of 'How delicious do you find this meat?': 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: 'Reject low tainted meat'. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Picouet P.A.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Munoz I.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Fulladosa E.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Daumas G.,IFIP |
Gou P.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2014
The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) for predicting fat weight using a complete or partial scanning of green hams. Sixty-eight hams covering a wide range of fat weight were divided into calibration (total weight 11.46 ± 0.97 kg) and validation (total weight 11.35 ± 1.13 kg) sets, fully scanned by CT and dissected. Virtual slices were constructed to standardise the number of slices for hams of different length and their fat weight was estimated. Different predictive models were established with partial least square regression (PLS) and ordinary linear regression (OLR) using all the tomograms and with OLR and multi-linear regression (MLR) using a reduced number of virtual slices. The MLR model with 3 virtual slices gave a better accuracy (RMSEV = 145 g) than the PLS model which used all the tomograms (RMSE = 156 g). MLR model using two virtual slice could be accurate enough (RMSEV = 205 g) for industrial monitoring applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blanch M.,IRTA Monells |
Panella-Riera N.,IRTA Monells |
Chevillon P.,IFIP |
Furnols M.F.I.,IRTA Monells |
And 4 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2012
The aim of this work was to study consumers' acceptance of pork with different levels of boar taint according to their androstenone (AND) sensitivity in France (FR, N = 144), Spain (ES, N = 101) and United Kingdom (UK, N = 147). Samples were classified as 'females', 'detection minus' males (low levels of AND and skatole - SKA) and 'detection plus' males (high levels of AND and SKA). Globally, 22.7% of consumers were high sensitive, 28.3% middle and 49.0% low sensitive or insensitive to AND. Sixty-five percent dislike AND odour. AND disliking was lower in UK than ES and FR. The percentage of consumers that may reject tainted meat was 14.3-41.0%; the risk was lower in UK than ES and FR. The description of AND odour varied according to the degree of sensitivity of the consumers. High AND levels reduced the acceptability of boar meat; medium AND levels could even improve its acceptability compared with low levels, resulting in meat which is as positive as that from females. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | CRPA, CREDA, IFIP and IRTA Monells
Type: | Journal: Meat science | Year: 2016
Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n=126) and United Kingdom (n=146), and test 2 performed in France (n=139) and Italy (n=140). Each test had 3 types of pork: Female meat, Low boar tainted meat, and a third type was Medium boar tainted meat or High boar tainted meat. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of How delicious do you find this meat?: 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: Reject low tainted meat. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint.