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Maisons-Alfort, France

Michalski M.C.,INSA Lyon | Genot C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gayet C.,Cniel | Lopez C.,Agrocampus Ouest | And 7 more authors.
Progress in Lipid Research

On a nutritional standpoint, lipids are now being studied beyond their energy content and fatty acid (FA) profiles. Dietary FA are building blocks of a huge diversity of more complex molecules such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL), themselves organised in supramolecular structures presenting different thermal behaviours. They are generally embedded in complex food matrixes. Recent reports have revealed that molecular and supramolecular structures of lipids and their liquid or solid state at the body temperature influence both the digestibility and metabolism of dietary FA. The aim of the present review is to highlight recent knowledge on the impact on FA digestion, absorption and metabolism of: (i) the intramolecular structure of TAG; (ii) the nature of the lipid molecules carrying FA; (iii) the supramolecular organization and physical state of lipids in native and formulated food products and (iv) the food matrix. Further work should be accomplished now to obtain a more reliable body of evidence and integrate these data in future dietary recommendations. Additionally, innovative lipid formulations in which the health beneficial effects of either native or recomposed structures of lipids will be taken into account can be foreseen. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Bonneau M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Klauke T.N.,University of Bonn | Gonzalez J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Rydhmer L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 10 more authors.

The aim of this paper is to present an approach for an integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems, taking into account the three classical pillars: economy, environment and society. Eight sustainability themes were considered: Animal Welfare (AW), Animal Health (AH), Breeding Programmes (BP), Environment (EN), Meat Safety (MS), Market Conformity (MC), Economy (EC) and Working Conditions (WC). A total of 37 primary indicators were identified and used for the evaluation of 15 much contrasted pig farming systems in five EU countries. The results show that the eight themes were not redundant and all contributed to the observed variation between systems. The tool was very robust for highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the systems along the eight themes that were considered. The number of primary indicators could be reduced from 37 to 18 with limited impact on the strengths/weaknesses profile of the individual systems. Integrating the eight theme evaluations into a single sustainability score is based on hypotheses or presumptions on the relative weights that should be given to the eight themes, which are very dependent on the context and on the purpose of the users of the tool. Therefore, the present paper does not have the ambition to provide a ready-for-use tool, rather to suggest an approach for the integrated evaluation of the sustainability of pig farming systems. © 2014 The Animal Consortium. Source

Picouet P.A.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Munoz I.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Fulladosa E.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Daumas G.,Ifip | Gou P.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology
Journal of Food Engineering

The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) for predicting fat weight using a complete or partial scanning of green hams. Sixty-eight hams covering a wide range of fat weight were divided into calibration (total weight 11.46 ± 0.97 kg) and validation (total weight 11.35 ± 1.13 kg) sets, fully scanned by CT and dissected. Virtual slices were constructed to standardise the number of slices for hams of different length and their fat weight was estimated. Different predictive models were established with partial least square regression (PLS) and ordinary linear regression (OLR) using all the tomograms and with OLR and multi-linear regression (MLR) using a reduced number of virtual slices. The MLR model with 3 virtual slices gave a better accuracy (RMSEV = 145 g) than the PLS model which used all the tomograms (RMSE = 156 g). MLR model using two virtual slice could be accurate enough (RMSEV = 205 g) for industrial monitoring applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Panella-Riera N.,IRTA Monells | Blanch M.,IRTA Monells | Kallas Z.,CREDA | Chevillon P.,Ifip | And 5 more authors.
Meat Science

Two consumer studies were conducted to know the acceptability of pork with different boar taint levels: test 1 performed in Spain (n = 126) and United Kingdom (n= 146), and test 2 performed in France (n = 139) and Italy (n = 140). Each test had 3 types of pork: 'Female meat', 'Low boar tainted meat', and a third type was 'Medium boar tainted meat' or 'High boar tainted meat'. Three main clusters were identified on the basis of 'How delicious do you find this meat?': 1-Pork lovers, 2-Boar meat lovers, 3-Reject boar tainted meat. Additionally, in test 2, a fourth cluster was identified: 'Reject low tainted meat'. A group of 16.2-38.2% of consumers rejected meat from boars, and another group of 12.4-21.7% rated the meat with medium or high levels of boar taint better than the meat from females, identifying a niche for meat from medium and high levels of boar taint, and suggesting the need to select carcasses on the basis of boar taint. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Sanchez M.-P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Tribout T.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Iannuccelli N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Bouffaud M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 10 more authors.
Genetics Selection Evolution

Background: Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected in pigs over the past 20 years using microsatellite markers. However, due to the low density of these markers, the accuracy of QTL location has generally been poor. Since 2009, the dense genome coverage provided by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip has made it possible to more accurately map QTL using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our objective was to perform high-density GWAS in order to identify genomic regions and corresponding haplotypes associated with production traits in a French Large White population of pigs. Methods. Animals (385 Large White pigs from 106 sires) were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and evaluated for 19 traits related to feed intake, growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Of the 64 432 SNPs on the chip, 44 412 were used for GWAS with an animal mixed model that included a regression coefficient for the tested SNPs and a genomic kinship matrix. SNP haplotype effects in QTL regions were then tested for association with phenotypes following phase reconstruction based on the Sscrofa10.2 pig genome assembly. Results: Twenty-three QTL regions were identified on autosomes and their effects ranged from 0.25 to 0.75 phenotypic standard deviation units for feed intake and feed efficiency (four QTL), carcass (12 QTL) and meat quality traits (seven QTL). The 10 most significant QTL regions had effects on carcass (chromosomes 7, 10, 16, 17 and 18) and meat quality traits (two regions on chromosome 1 and one region on chromosomes 8, 9 and 13). Thirteen of the 23 QTL regions had not been previously described. A haplotype block of 183 kb on chromosome 1 (six SNPs) was identified and displayed three distinct haplotypes with significant (0.0001 < P < 0.03) associations with all evaluated meat quality traits. Conclusions: GWAS analyses with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip enabled the detection of 23 QTL regions that affect feed consumption, carcass and meat quality traits in a LW population, of which 13 were novel QTL. The proportionally larger number of QTL found for meat quality traits suggests a specific opportunity for improving these traits in the pig by genomic selection. © 2014 Sanchez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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