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Hevia D.,University of Oviedo | Hevia D.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales IFI | Mayo J.C.,University of Oviedo | Quiros I.,University of Oviedo | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a potent endogenous antioxidant and free radical scavenger that has attracted much attention as a consequence of its multiple biological functions. In addition to other physiological properties, it has clear antiproliferative activity in several types of cancer cell. The concentration of melatonin necessary to inhibit cell growth is much higher than its blood physiological concentrations in some tumor types. For years its indolic nature has impeded proper monitoring, by molecular or immunological techniques, of its uptake by cancer cells. In this work we developed a simple, rapid, and validated analytical method for detection and quantification of MEL inside normal and cancer cells. For this purpose we performed high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis after liquid-liquid extraction of the indole from biological samples. The method was validated, and the correlation coefficient for amounts from 0.125 to 1.25 μg was higher than 0.999, with a range of recovery near 100%. Precision was evaluated as repeatibility, and for intermediate precision, the relative standard deviation was less than 5%. The method was used to study the stability of the indole in solution and to determine intracellular melatonin concentrations in normal (PNT1A) and several cancer (LNCaP, DU-145, PC-3) prostate cell lines. Intracellular LOQ/LOD were 7.23/2.83, 23.17/9.07, 4.03/1.83, and 6.51/2.53 nmol L-1, or 1.82/4.66, 0.56/1.45, 3.26/8.34, and 2.02/5.17 attogram in each cell in PNT1A, LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 cells, respectively. Because there was no information about intracellular levels of melatonin inside normal or tumor prostate cells after treatment with the indole, nor a relationship between its antiproliferative activity and its intracellular concentration, this is the first time that, by using an analytical method combined with measurement of cellular volume by flow cytometry, the intracellular concentration of MEL has been estimated. Also, data obtained here explain why the antiproliferative properties of MEL vary in different cell types. This is, moreover, the first time that by increasing the intracellular concentration of melatonin, its antitumor properties have been promoted in prostate cancer cells. This process can be monitored by the method developed here. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source

Hevia D.,University of Oviedo | Hevia D.,Institute Fermentaciones Industriales IFI | Botas C.,University of Oviedo | Sainz R.M.,University of Oviedo | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-metoxytriptamine, MEL) has focused a lot of attention as consequence of its multiple functions. MEL is a potent endogenous antioxidant and a free radical scavenger that reacts with several sort of radicals generating various metabolites. Two of them are N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynurenine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynurenine (AMK). These compounds are important because they have also antioxidant actions as well as other important biological properties. In the present work, we develop two methods to detect and quantify these compounds (MEL, AFMK and AMK) in the same sample. For this purpose we used an experimental design, and utilized high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) techniques with diode array detector in both of them. The limit of detection/quantification for MEL, AFMK and AMK were respectively 44/94, 18/38 and 23/51 ng mL-1 by using HPLC and 13/44, 37/124 and 47/156 ng mL-1 by using MEKC. This is the first time that these compounds have been separated in the same chromatogram or electroferogram. The time of analysis was faster using MEKC. Furthermore, this technique showed better resolution but HPLC offered better limit of detection and quantification for metabolites. Both methods were validated and correlation coefficients were higher than 0.999 and the range of recovery of those methods were 99.6-103.7%. Precision was evaluated as repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard derivation <5%. When a 5 μg mL-1 solution of these compounds were analyzed with both methods we do not observed any statistically significance differences. Moreover, we analyzed 3COHM (cyclic-3-hydroximelatonin), another known metabolite of melatonin, by using the same methods. The employment of these methods will offer a useful tool to contribute to answer the role of MEL, AFMK and AMK in biological system and both methods can be used in routine analysis for these compounds. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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