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News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have made major progress in the production of two-dimensional polymer-based materials. To produce cloths from monomolecular threads, the scientists used SURMOFs, i.e. surface-mounted metal-organic frameworks, developed by KIT. They inserted four-armed monomers, i.e. smaller molecular building blocks, into some SURMOF layers. Cross-linking of the monomers then resulted in textiles consisting of interwoven polymer threads. This work is now presented in Nature Communications. (DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14442) Self-organized cross-linking of polymer threads, i.e. of extremely long molecules, to two-dimensional tissues is a big challenge in polymer chemistry. With the help of a bottom-up process to cross-link smaller molecules, so-called monomers, scientists of the Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG) and Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) of KIT now made an important step towards reaching this objective. They produced a tissue from monomolecular polymer threads by using SURMOFs, i.e. surface-mounted metal-organic frameworks, as looms. This approach is now presented in Nature Communications. The SURMOFs developed by IFG are frameworks consisting of metallic node points and organic linkers that are assembled on a substrate layer by layer. They have a crystalline structure and can be customized to a large range of the applications by combining various materials and varying the pore sizes. For weaving two-dimensional textiles, the KIT scientists specifically inserted special connection elements, i.e. four-armed monomers, into the SURMOF layers for later cross-linking. Then, these active SURMOF layers were embedded between so-called sacrificial layers. "In this way, we produced a sandwich-type setup to ensure that the textiles produced really are two-dimensional, which means that they have a thickness of one molecule layer only," Professor Christof Wöll says. He heads the IFG and is the corresponding author of the publication together with Professor Marcel Mayor of INT. The scientists then applied a catalyst in these active SURMOF layers to start a reaction for linking the monomers to polymers. Afterwards, the metallic node points were removed. Flat tissues of monomolecular polymer threads remained. "The polymer threads are kept together by the mechanical forces resulting from the weave pattern," Marcel Mayor explains. "Hence, the molecular tissues are as flexible as textiles produced in a conventional way." For further information, please contact: Margarete Lehné, Media Relations Officer, Phone: 49-721-608-4 8121, Fax: +49 721 608-4 3658, Email: margarete.lehne@kit.edu Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) pools its three core tasks of research, higher education, and innovation in a mission. With about 9,300 employees and 25,000 students, KIT is one of the big institutions of research and higher education in natural sciences and engineering in Europe. KIT - The Research University in the Helmholtz Association Since 2010, the KIT has been certified as a family-friendly university. This press release is available on the internet at http://www. .


Biologist Johannes Eberhard Reiner, KIT, with the reactors for microbial electro-synthesis. Credit: Constanze Zacharias Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) are working on an efficient and inexpensive method for the production of organic plastics. In the "BioElectroPlast" project funded by the Federal Ministry of Research they use microorganisms that produce polyhydroxybutyric acid from flue gas, air, and renewable power. The optimized process of microbial electrosynthesis opens up further perspectives for the future production of biofuel or for the storage of power from regenerative sources in the form of chemical products, for instance. The consumer's wish for sustainable products also increases the demand for organic plastics, for e.g. disposable cups, packages or garbage bags. The "BioElectroPlast" project coordinated by the Applied Biology Group headed by Professor Johannes Gescher of KIT's Institute for Applied Biosciences (IAB) focuses on a method to produce organic plastics with a minimum consumption of resources and at low costs. In addition, "BioElectroPlast" is aimed at using the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) as an inexpensive and generally available raw material in the chain of values added and at applying renewable power. For this purpose, the scientists use a relatively new technology, called microbial electrosynthesis. About six years ago, researchers in the USA for the first time described how certain microorganisms grow on a cathode, bind CO2, and use the cathode as the only energy and electron source. A chemical process, by contrast, requires high pressures and temperatures and, hence, a high energy input as well as expensive catalysts. So far, microbial electrosynthesis has been used mainly to produce acetates – salts of acetic acid. "We have optimized the process, such that the microorganisms are supplied with more energy for the production of molecules of higher complexity, e.g. polymers," Johannes Eberhard Reiner of the IAB explains. "We mix the CO2 with air. Then, the microorganisms use the oxygen as electron acceptor. This is quite similar to human breathing, where oxygen also serves as electron acceptor. In human beings, however, electrons do not come from a cathode, but are released by metabolization of our food in the cells. Then, they are transferred to the oxygen for energy production." As biocatalyst, the researchers use a newly isolated microorganism that permanently regenerates itself. Flue gas is applied as CO2 source. As a result, the concentration of this greenhouse gas is reduced and other sources of organic carbon that are usually applied as biotechnological substrates, such as agricultural products, are no longer required. Competition with food and feed production is avoided. The electric power needed for the "Bio-ElectroPlast" process is based on regenerative sources. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) funds the "BioElectroPlast" project under its initiative "CO2Plus – Material Use of CO2 to Broaden the Raw Materials Base". "BioElectroPlus" started in September this year and is scheduled for a duration of three years. Apart from the IAB, the KIT project partners are the Chair for Water Chemistry and Water Technology of Professor Harald Horn at the Engler-Bunte Institute (EBI) and the "Microbial Bioinformatics" Group headed by Dr. Andreas Dötsch at the Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG). The other partners are the University of Freiburg and EnBW AG. EnBW participates in the project to further reduce CO2 emission of coal combustion as a bridge technology. The researchers plan to test their reactors directly in the coal-fired power plant of EnBW in Karlsruhe and to use the exhaust gases produced there. In parallel to the "BioElectroPlast" project, KIT's researchers also study the conversion of carbon dioxide into valuable compounds under the industry-funded ZeroCarb FP innovation alliance. Here, the scientists use alternative biocatalysts isolated by them, as the industry partners Südzucker AG and B.R.A.I.N. AG have specified different process requirements and concentrate on other end products. Explore further: Microorganisms in cow manure used to build rechargeable battery


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: phys.org

Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have made major progress in the production of two-dimensional polymer-based materials. To produce cloths from monomolecular threads, the scientists used SURMOFs, i.e. surface-mounted metal-organic frameworks, developed by KIT. They inserted four-armed monomers, i.e. smaller molecular building blocks, into some SURMOF layers. Cross-linking of the monomers then resulted in textiles consisting of interwoven polymer threads. Self-organized cross-linking of polymer threads, i.e. of extremely long molecules, to two-dimensional tissues is a big challenge in polymer chemistry. With the help of a bottom-up process to cross-link smaller molecules, so-called monomers, scientists of the Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG) and Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) of KIT now made an important step towards reaching this objective. They produced a tissue from monomolecular polymer threads by using SURMOFs, i.e. surface-mounted metal-organic frameworks, as looms. This approach is now presented in Nature Communications. The SURMOFs developed by IFG are frameworks consisting of metallic node points and organic linkers that are assembled on a substrate layer by layer. They have a crystalline structure and can be customized to a large range of the applications by combining various materials and varying the pore sizes. For weaving two-dimensional textiles, the KIT scientists specifically inserted special connection elements, i.e. four-armed monomers, into the SURMOF layers for later cross-linking. Then, these active SURMOF layers were embedded between so-called sacrificial layers. "In this way, we produced a sandwich-type setup to ensure that the textiles produced really are two-dimensional, which means that they have a thickness of one molecule layer only," Professor Christof Wöll says. He heads the IFG and is the corresponding author of the publication together with Professor Marcel Mayor of INT. The scientists then applied a catalyst in these active SURMOF layers to start a reaction for linking the monomers to polymers. Afterwards, the metallic node points were removed. Flat tissues of monomolecular polymer threads remained. "The polymer threads are kept together by the mechanical forces resulting from the weave pattern," Marcel Mayor explains. "Hence, the molecular tissues are as flexible as textiles produced in a conventional way." Explore further: Improving the mechanical properties of polymer gels through molecular design More information: Zhengbang Wang et al. Molecular weaving via surface-templated epitaxy of crystalline coordination networks., Nature Communications (2017). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14442


News Article | December 28, 2016
Site: www.cemag.us

Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Universität Hannover developed novel membranes, whose selectivity can be switched dynamically with the help of light. For this purpose, azobenzene molecules were integrated into membranes made of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Depending on the irradiation wavelength, these azobenzene units in the MOFs adopt a stretched or angular form. In this way, it is possible to dynamically adjust the permeability of the membrane and the separation factor of gases or liquids. The results are reported in Nature Communications. Metal-organic frameworks, MOFs for short, are highly porous crystalline materials, consisting of metallic nodes and organic linkers. They can be tailored to many different applications. Among others, they have an enormous potential as membranes for efficient separation of molecules according to various parameters. By modifying pore sizes and chemical properties of the pore walls, static selectivity of the membranes can be adapted to the respective requirements. In Nature Communications the scientists for the first time present membranes, whose selectivities can be tuned dynamically. This is done remotely with the help of light. Researchers of KIT’s Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG) and Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), in cooperation with scientists of Leibniz Universität Hannover, equipped MOF-based membranes with photoswitches. “In this way, the membranes are provided with minute windows that open and close depending on light irradiation,“ the Head of the Institute of Functional Interfaces, Professor Christof Wöll, explains. Azobenzene molecules are used as remote-controlled photoswitches. They consist of two phenyl rings each, which are linked by a nitrogen double bond. Two different configurations exist: A stretched trans-configuration and an angular cis-configuration. Irradiation with light causes the molecule to reposition. Under visible light the molecule stretches, under UV light it bends. Repositioning is reversible, can be repeated as often as desired, and does not affect the crystalline structure of the MOFs. Precise control of the ratio between cis- and trans-azobenzene by e.g. a precisely adjusted irradiation time or simultaneous irradiation with UV light and visible light enables dynamic tuning of membrane permeability and of separation efficiency of gaseous or liquid substance mixtures. “Control of these important properties by external stimuli, i.e. without having direct contact with the membrane, is a real breakthrough in membrane technology “, says Dr. Lars Heinke, Head of the IFG Group ”Dynamic Processes in Porous Systems.“ Functioning of the novel smart membranes was demonstrated by the separation of a hydrogen-carbon dioxide gas mixture. The scientists succeeded in dynamically tuning the separation factor between three and eight. The concept is also suited for separating other gas mixtures, such as nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. It might also be feasible to use MOF membranes with photoswitches to control accessibility of catalyst or sensor surfaces or release of encapsulated medical substances.


News Article | December 23, 2016
Site: phys.org

A MOF membrane with integrated photoswitches separates molecules. The sepa-ration factor can be tuned dynamically by light irradiation. Credit: Alexander Knebel/Universität Hannover and Lars Heinke/KIT Researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and Uni-versität Hannover developed novel membranes, whose selectivity can be switched dynamically with the help of light. For this pur-pose, azobenzene molecules were integrated into membranes made of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Depending on the irradiation wavelength, these azobenzene units in the MOFs adopt a stretched or angular form. In this way, it is possible to dynamically adjust the permeability of the membrane and the separation factor of gases or liquids. The results are reported in Nature Communications. Metal-organic frameworks, MOFs for short, are highly porous crys-talline materials, consisting of metallic nodes and organic linkers. They can be tailored to many different applications. Among others, they have an enormous potential as membranes for efficient separa-tion of molecules according to various parameters. By modifying pore sizes and chemical properties of the pore walls, static selectiv-ity of the membranes can be adapted to the respective require-ments. In Nature Communications the scientists for the first time present membranes, whose selectivities can be tuned dynamically. This is done remotely with the help of light. Researchers of KIT's Institute of Functional Interfaces (IFG) and Institute of Organic Chemistry (IOC), in cooperation with scientists of Leibniz Universität Hannover, equipped MOF-based membranes with photoswitches. "In this way, the membranes are provided with minute windows that open and close depending on light irradiation," the Head of the Institute of Functional Interfaces, Professor Christof Wöll, explains. Azobenzene molecules are used as remote-controlled photoswitch-es. They consist of two phenyl rings each, which are linked by a nitrogen double bond. Two different configurations exist: A stretched trans-configuration and an angular cis-configuration. Irra-diation with light causes the molecule to reposition. Under visible light the molecule stretches, under UV light it bends. Repositioning is reversible, can be repeated as often as desired, and does not affect the crystalline structure of the MOFs. Precise control of the ratio between cis- and trans-azobenzene by e.g. a precisely adjusted irradiation time or simultaneous irradiation with UV light and visible light enables dynamic tuning of membrane permeability and of separation efficiency of gaseous or liquid sub-stance mixtures. "Control of these important properties by external stimuli, i.e. without having direct contact with the membrane, is a real breakthrough in membrane technology ", says Dr. Lars Heinke, Head of the IFG Group "Dynamic Processes in Porous Systems." Functioning of the novel smart membranes was demonstrated by the separation of a hydrogen-carbon dioxide gas mixture. The sci-entists succeeded in dynamically tuning the separation factor be-tween three and eight. The concept is also suited for separating other gas mixtures, such as nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. It might also be feasible to use MOF membranes with photoswitches to control accessibility of catalyst or sensor surfaces or release of encapsulated medical substances. Explore further: Scientists work out method to create unique polymeric membranes with carbon nanotubes More information: Zhengbang Wang et al. Tunable molecular separation by nanoporous membranes, Nature Communications (2016). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13872


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: co.newswire.com

JR Technologies has entered into an agreement with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) to design, develop, host, and operate the IATA Financial Gateway (IFG) payment solution - a turn-key information technology solution by IATA that will simplify the travel services suppliers shopping-to-cash process. IFG introduces a universal payment gateway allowing members to manage and optimize their diverse sales payment processes through a single global platform regardless of their network, business partners and distribution channels. The solution is fully integrated with the Weblink for agency sales reporting to the IATA Billing and Settlement Plan (BSP), further facilitating the early adoption by airlines, GDS, and travel agencies. JR Technologies was selected by IATA for its track record in innovation and continuous delivery of high quality services in a cost-effective manner. Through its strategic partnership with JR Technologies, IATA will have access to intellectual knowledge in line with leading best industry practices and benefit from continuous improvement in services and reduction of IATA's associated costs. JR Technologies specializes in NDC-enabled airline retailing solutions. The transition into a modern airline retailing model requires a solid payment gateway that expands the scope of airline transactions to include products and services from across the value chain. "This is a win-win situation for the entire industry," said George Khairallah, President of JR Technologies. "Our commitment to airlines and all travel suppliers is to continually offer innovative solutions at a speed to match the constantly evolving marketplace. Travel suppliers expect nothing less and that's what IFG and JR Technologies will deliver." "The IATA Financial Gateway will offer an innovative and cost efficient solution to address the airlines' payment challenges through their different distribution channels. It will help them optimize their payment processes and facilitate acceptance of different forms of payments including the BSP agency sales settlement through a single global platform," said Aleks Popovich, IATA Senior Vice President, Financial and Distribution Services. "IATA's objective, with the support of JR Technologies, is to go beyond the scope of airlines. This in turn will trigger cost efficiency, improve risk management and maximize resources to bring cost-saving benefits for the entire industry," added Aleks Popovich. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) is the trade association for the world's airlines, representing some 265 airlines or 83% of total air traffic. IATA supports many areas of aviation activity and helps to formulate industry policy on critical aviation issues. JR Technologies is a thought leader in airline retailing and New Distribution Capabilities (NDC). Established in 2015 in Chania, on the Island of Crete, the JR Technologies Innovation Center is dedicated to supporting NDC adoption and boasts rapid prototyping and R&D capabilities unparalleled in the travel industry. With its locations in Athens (Greece), and Dublin (Ireland), JR Technologies offers end-to-end NDC enabled airline retailing solutions that support both direct and indirect distribution. For more information, please contact:


Wellington P.,IFG | Roberlam G.D.M.,IFG | Luciano M.N.,Federal University of Uberlandia
Electric Power Systems Research | Year: 2015

This paper aims at conducting a comparative study between a traditional three-phase squirrel cage induction motor and asymmetrical three-phase induction motor fed by single-phase voltage. For the purpose of this study, two engines with the same power were employed. During the research herein, the authors investigated the behaviour of various magnitudes for each machine. It was found that the asymmetric motor features a number of advantages over traditional motors, which makes it an excellent choice when the application requires the drive loads of high power and do not have an available three-phase supply. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

PHOENIX--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Over the last two decades, family offices have become an increasingly impactful player in the investment management space. As their influence has grown, so too has their need to maintain the privacy of their families while still continuing to keep abreast of market trends and evaluate new investment opportunities. IFG Network provides a platform for single and multi-family offices to achieve this through benchmarking their existing practices among peers and building st


News Article | November 24, 2015
Site: motherboard.vice.com

In December, representatives from more than 190 countries will come together for a high level meeting at the United Nations to determine the future of the internet. But first, a select few are meeting behind closed doors this week to set the agenda. The December meeting is a planned ten year review of policies for global internet deployment laid out at the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in 2005. Delegates will discuss issues such as the digital divide and internet governance, taking into account input from a variety of non-governmental stakeholders. One of those non-government entities is the Internet Society, a nonprofit that promotes internet freedom and accessibility. CEO Kathryn Brown said a lot of issues are on the table this year, and some internet freedom advocates are concerned governments will use the review to push control of the internet into their hands. “We have been working very hard to ensure the governance of the internet remains as it is, which is in the hands of the private sector; with roles and responsibilities of governments when it is called for, but not a centrally-controlled, top-down control,” she said. It’s not clear which countries will be present at the closed doors meetings. There are four main areas to be discussed at the high-level WSIS meeting in December: internet accessibility, human rights and free speech, internet governance, and internet security. Around 60 percent of the world’s population is still not online, most of which is in extremely inaccessible areas. The UN will discuss how to make the internet available to the most difficult-to-reach users and how those services will be administered and governed. Many countries have already made their views public ahead of the WSIS, with countries such as Russia advocating for more extreme government controls over the internet. The country has also said it advocates transferring power over internet domains and IP addresses from US control to an international organization overseen by the UN. The US has already announced it intends to hand control over the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) to a “global multi-stakeholder body.” Other countries have called for more transparency and multi stakeholder conversations surrounding internet governance, including the renewal of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), an annual multi-stakeholder forum established by the UN in 2006 to set internet standards and policies. The IFG’s mandate expires this year. The informal meeting this week has a huge bearing on December’s main event, and will set the tone for how much oversight and control governments have over the internet, especially in the developing world. Brown said she is concerned the recent terror attacks in Paris may be used to push censorship and anti-privacy measures at the forum. “After Paris, there are governments who have always thought they should be in charge and now have a way to argue this that is persuasive to other governments, at least with respect to the security issues,” she said. “Our work is to try to create understanding around cyber security issues, and it is going to take a concerted, collaborative effort around security.” Sally Wentworth, the vice president of global policy development at the Internet Society, said internet security will be a major issue at this meeting, not necessarily because concrete policies will be formed there but because it will shape the global conversation. “They will discuss what is the role of the UN to some degree, but really these are more declaratory statements of how the international community can address cyber security and who should be involved, who is at the table, and how we should deal with issues like mass surveillance,” she said. Declarations made by the UN following meeting like these are often used as framework, especially in developing countries, for internet policy. Brown said that is why the meeting is “hugely important.” The negotiations are set to end this week, but Wentworth said she anticipates they could continue all the way up to the December meetings.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.prlog.org

Chairman EIDER Smartphones is in Discussion with IFG Football Organization, Utrecht, Netherlands to Impart European Football Education to the Indian Rural Boys.

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