Leroy G.,Agro ParisTech |
Leroy G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Mary-Huard T.,Agro ParisTech |
Verrier E.,Agro ParisTech |
And 4 more authors.
Genetics Selection Evolution | Year: 2013
Background: Effective population sizes of 140 populations (including 60 dog breeds, 40 sheep breeds, 20 cattle breeds and 20 horse breeds) were computed using pedigree information and six different computation methods. Simple demographical information (number of breeding males and females), variance of progeny size, or evolution of identity by descent probabilities based on coancestry or inbreeding were used as well as identity by descent rate between two successive generations or individual identity by descent rate. Results: Depending on breed and method, effective population sizes ranged from 15 to 133 056, computation method and interaction between computation method and species showing a significant effect on effective population size (P < 0.0001). On average, methods based on number of breeding males and females and variance of progeny size produced larger values (4425 and 356, respectively), than those based on identity by descent probabilities (average values between 93 and 203). Since breeding practices and genetic substructure within dog breeds increased inbreeding, methods taking into account the evolution of inbreeding produced lower effective population sizes than those taking into account evolution of coancestry. The correlation level between the simplest method (number of breeding males and females, requiring no genealogical information) and the most sophisticated one ranged from 0.44 to 0.60 according to species. Conclusions: When choosing a method to compute effective population size, particular attention should be paid to the species and the specific genetic structure of the population studied. © 2013Leroy et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
PubMed | CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors, University of Liège, French National Institute for Agricultural Research and IFCE
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014
In equids, placentation is diffuse and nutrient supply to the fetus is determined by uterine size. This correlates with maternal size and affects intra-uterine development and subsequent post-natal growth, as well as insulin sensitivity in the newborn. Long-term effects remain to be described. In this study, fetal growth was enhanced or restricted through ET using pony (P), saddlebred (S) and draft (D) horses. Control P-P (n=21) and S-S (n=28) pregnancies were obtained by AI. Enhanced and restricted pregnancies were obtained by transferring P or S embryos into D mares (P-D, n=6 and S-D, n=8) or S embryos into P mares (S-P, n=6), respectively. Control and experimental foals were raised by their dams and recipient mothers, respectively. Weight gain, growth hormones and glucose homeostasis were investigated in the foals from birth to weaning. Fetal growth was enhanced in P-D and these foals remained consistently heavier, with reduced T3 concentrations until weaning compared to P-P. P-D had lower fasting glucose from days 30 to 200 and higher insulin secretion than P-P after IVGTT on day 3. Euglycemic clamps in the immediate post-weaning period revealed no difference in insulin sensitivity between P-D and P-P. Fetal growth was restricted in S-P and these foals remained consistently lighter until weaning compared to S-D, with elevated T3 concentrations in the newborn compared to S-S. S-P exhibited higher fasting glycemia than S-S and S-D from days 30 to 200. They had higher maximum increment in plasma glucose than S-D after IVGTT on day 3 and clamps on day 200 demonstrated higher insulin sensitivity compared to S-D. Neither the restricted nor the enhanced fetal environment affected IGF-1 concentrations. Thus, enhanced and restricted fetal and post-natal environments had combined effects that persisted until weaning. They induced different adaptive responses in post-natal glucose metabolism: an early insulin-resistance was induced in enhanced P-D, while S-P developed increased insulin sensitivity.
PubMed | CNRS Physiology of Reproduction and Behaviors, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, University of Caen Lower Normandy, AgroParis Technology and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
In stud management, broodmares are commonly fed concentrates in late pregnancy. This practice, however, was shown to correlate with an increased incidence of osteochondrosis in foals, which may be related to insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that supplementation of the mare with barley in the last trimester of pregnancy alters the pre-weaning foal growth, glucose metabolism and osteoarticular status. Here, pregnant multiparous saddlebred mares were fed forage only (group F, n=13) or both forage and cracked barley (group B, n=12) from the 7th month of pregnancy until term, as calculated to cover nutritional needs of broodmares. Diets were given in two daily meals. All mares and foals returned to pasture after parturition. Post-natal growth, glucose metabolism and osteoarticular status were investigated in pre-weaning foals. B mares maintained an optimal body condition score (>3.5), whereas that of F mares decreased and remained low (<2.5) up to 3 months of lactation, with a significantly lower bodyweight (-7%) than B mares throughout the last 2 months of pregnancy. B mares had increased plasma glucose and insulin after the first meal and after the second meal to a lesser extent, which was not observed in F mares. B mares also had increased insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Plasma NEFA and leptin were only temporarily affected by diet in mares during pregnancy or in early lactation. Neonatal B foals had increased serum osteocalcin and slightly increased glucose increments and clearance after glucose injection, but these effects had vanished at weaning. Body measurements, plasma IGF-1, T4, T3, NEFA and leptin concentrations, insulin secretion during IVGTT, as well as glucose metabolism rate during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps after weaning, did not differ between groups. Radiographic examination of joints indicated increased osteochondrosis relative risk in B foals, but this was not significant. These data demonstrate that B or F maternal nutrition has very few effects on foal growth, endocrinology and glucose homeostasis until weaning, but may induce cartilage lesions.
PubMed | IMV Technologies and I.F.C.E
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016
Several laboratories routinely use flow cytometry to evaluate stallion semen quality. However, objective and practical tools for the on-field interpretation of data concerning fertilizing potential are scarce. A panel of nine tests, evaluating a large number of compartments or functions of the spermatozoa: motility, morphology, viability, mitochondrial activity, oxidation level, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity, organization of the plasma membrane, and hypoosmotic resistance, was applied to a population of 43 stallions, 33 of which showing widely differing fertilities (19%-84% pregnancy rate per cycle [PRC]). Analyses were performed either within 2hours after semen collection or after 24-hour storage at 4C in INRA96 extender, on three to six ejaculates for each stallion. The aim was to provide data on the distribution of values among said population, showing within-stallion and between-stallion variability, and to determine whether appropriate combinations of tests could evaluate the fertilizing potential of each stallion. Within-stallion repeatability, defined as intrastallion correlation (r=between-stallion variance/total variance) ranged between 0.29 and 0.84 for conventional variables (viability, morphology, and motility), and between 0.15 and 0.81 for cytometric variables. Those data suggested that analyzing six ejaculates would be adequate to characterize a stallion. For most variables, except those related to DNA integrity and some motility variables, results differed significantly between immediately performed analyses and analyses performed after 24hours at 4C. Two best-fit combinations of variables were determined. Factorial discriminant analysis using a first combination of seven variables, including the polarization of mitochondria, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity, and hypoosmotic resistance, permitted exact determination of the fertility group for each stallion: fertile, that is, PRC higher than 55%; intermediate, that is, 45%
Paulino T.R.S.,IFCE |
Araujo R.S.,University of Fortaleza |
Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental | Year: 2015
The process of advanced oxidation by Fenton reaction (Fe2+/H2O2) was studied in this work for decolorization of two synthetic effluents, containing the dyes Methylene Blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB). Experimentally, solutions at concentrations of 10 mg L-1 of the dyes were exposed to different concentrations of the oxidizing agent (H2O2) and catalyst (Fe2+) at a temperature of 27 °C and pH 3. The results showed high levels of color removal, with efficiency of 96% for MB and 86% RB. The data showed good adjustment to the kinetic model. The monitoring of the absorption spectrum of the dyes showed a reduction in amplitude of the peaks related to the chromophoric groups in both compounds, confirming the levels of efficiency achieved. The analysis of removal of organic matter in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) did not follow the same rate of decrease of decoloration, resulting in reductions of 40.9% for MB and 25.5% for the RB. © 2015, ABES - Associacao Brasileira de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental. All rights resevred.
de Carvalho C.M.,FATEC Cariri |
Viana T.V.A.,DeNA |
Marinho A.B.,UNILAB |
de Lima Junior L.A.,DeNA |
Valnir Junior M.,IFCE
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2013
One of the viable alternatives for the occupation of the space left by the cotton in the semiarid of Ceará is the cultivation of Jatropha curcas L. aiming the production of biodiesel. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of different levels of irrigation water (735.53, 963.30, 1191.03, 1418.82 and 1646.60 mm) and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 25, 50 and 75 kg N ha-1) on the growth of the Jatropha curcas L crop. The data regarding the growth of fresh biomass epigeal phytomass were obtained at seven different crop cycle times (30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 days after pruning). According to the results, the stem height and the relative growth rate in stem height had a linear increase with the increase of water depths. The collection time influenced the values of height and stem diameter, resulting in both a linear behavior over the course of the experiment. There was a decline in the values of relative growth rate in height and stem diameter caused by climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and evaporation) and the onset of flowering and fruit formation.
de Freitas C.A.S.,IFCE |
da Silva A.R.A.,DeNA |
Bezerra F.M.L.,DeNA |
Mota F.S.B.,Federal University of Ceará |
And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2013
With the excessive consumption of water in agricultural production, and the expansion of the cultivation of sugarcane due to growing demand for ethanol, in this context, a rational use of water for irrigation and use of wastewater in agricultural production has been raised. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reuse of treated domestic sewage effluent for irrigation of sugarcane. The study was conducted at the Research Center on Treatment and Reuse of Wastewater, in Aquiraz, CE. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with four replications. In the plots were evaluated the effects of two types of water (well water and treated domestic sewage); in the subplots five irrigation water depths were allocated, based on percentage of evaporation in a Class "A" tank. It can be concluded that wastewater provided the highest potential yield of stem (272.1 Mg ha-1) and higher plant density (126,000 plants ha-1). The increase in irrigation water depths provided increase in potential yield and plant density, regardless of the type of water.
Machado F.L.C.,IFCE |
Cajazeira J.P.,Federal University of Ceará |
Da Costa J.M.C.,Federal University of Ceará
Engenharia Agricola | Year: 2015
This study aimed at evaluating the effects of ethylene on peel color and compositional changes in 'Lane late' orange stored under refrigerated and ambient conditions. Physiologically mature, but green-peeled, oranges were exposed to ethylene gas under room temperature and high relative humidity for 24 hours. Storage chamber was ventilated with fresh air after 12 hours to mitigate consequences derived from fruit respiration. Both nondestructive analysis, such as peel color (hue angle, chromaticity, and brightness) and weight loss, and destructive ones (soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids to acidity ratio, and puncture force) were performed upon harvest, after degreening, and every three days during eighteen days in storage. Experiment was carried out using an entirely randomized design with thirty replications for nondestructive and four replications for destructive analyses, in a split plot scheme. Exposure to ethylene ensured a golden yellow peel for both fruit stored under ambient and refrigerated conditions. High relative humidity, associated with low temperature prevented fruit from losing moisture. Fruit exposure to ethylene did not affect weight loss, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids, acidity ratio, or puncture force.
Palacio H.A.Q.,IFCE |
Neto J.R.A.,IFCE |
Meireles A.C.M.,DeNA |
Andrade E.M.,DeNA |
And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2011
Multivariate statistical techniques were employed in order to identify the similarity in the salinity levels of the water reservoirs of Ceará State, Brazil. Also, to identify the factors that explain the variability of water quality. The data set used in this investigation came from the Company of Water Management (COGERH). The studied period extended from 1998 to 2009, in a total of 807 samples from 48 different sources. The investigated parameters were: Cl -, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na +, HCO 3 -, EC and SAR. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis identified four groups, being the types and concentrations of the analyzed salts the determining factors. In groups 1 and 2, the salinity level of the water was, mainly, due to the geology and the climate of the region. While for group 3 and 4, besides these factors, the water salinity was influenced by human activities. According to the results, the first and the second components (independent factors) explaining, 57.28 and 26.77%, respectively, the total variance of seven variables. The most important parameters related to the variability of the water salinity level were Cl -, CE, Na + and Mg 2+, which were related to salt solubility.
News Article | December 12, 2016
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