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Duran Zuazo V.H.,IFAPA Cent. Torres Tomejil | Pleguezuelo C.R.R.,Ifapa Centro Camino Of Purchil | Tarifa D.F.,Finca el Zahori

Introduction Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a crop of major economic importance in the provinces of Malaga and Granada (SE Spain). A field experiment on mango trees was designed to determine the optimum irrigation scheduling over three seasons. The aim was to evaluate the impact of sustained-deficit irrigation (SDI) strategies on fruit yield and quality, tree growth, and mineral status under a Mediterranean subtropical climate. Materials and methods. Three sustained-deficit irrigation treatments were applied to mango trees: SDI-1 (33% ETc), SDI-2 (50% ETc) and SDI-3 (75% ETc). The stress treatments were compared with a control (C-100) irrigated at 100% ETC. The response of fruit yield, number of fruits, fruit size and quality, and macro-and micronutrients in leaves was determined. Results. The SDI-2 treatment proved to be the most appropriate SDI treatment, since it allowed the trees to reach the highest yield (18.4 t•ha-1) and the best water-use efficiency (7.14 kg•m-3). However, fruit size was higher for trees of the SDI-3 and C-100 treatments, since they reached significantly higher length and width. The total soluble solids were affected by the SDI treatments only for one year, being highest in fruits from trees of the SDI-1 and SDI-2 treatments. Macro-and micronutrients in the leaves were affected by the SDI treatment only for the P, Mg and Mn contents. Conclusion The SDI treatment providing 50% of ETC is recommended for mango orchards in order to attain the highest yields and the best water-use efficiency under a Mediterranean subtropical climate. © 2011 Cirad/EDP Sciences. Source

Castel J.M.,University of Seville | Mena Y.,University of Seville | Ruiz F.A.,Ifapa Centro Camino Of Purchil | Camunez-Ruiz J.,University of Seville | Sanchez-Rodriguez M.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Small Ruminant Research

In recent decades there has been a worldwide increase in the intensification process of the livestock sector. This study looks into the changes that have taken place in goat farms in less favoured areas of Spain by comparing the situation of systems in the Northern Sierra of Seville (SNS), a traditional goat farming area in Spain, in the years 2002 and 2008. The information for this study was collected in 2002 and 2008, from a sample of 22 and 23 dairy goat farmers, respectively. A farm survey was conducted, composed of 95 items, grouped into the following sections: animal base, infrastructures and facilities, feeding, reproduction, milk production and animal health. For either of the two years of study a multivariate analysis has been conducted through a multiple correspondence analysis followed by a cluster analysis. Four groups have been identified for each year, showing a diverse range of farms whereby the most intensive farms coexist with those that continue to practise grazing. The following main changes have been observed throughout the study: (i) the herd size is increasing; (ii) the supply of concentrates and straw has increased significantly but use of forage has decreased; (iii) the lactation length has increased; (iv) milking facilities and feed distribution systems have been modernized; and (v) the animal health has substantially improved. Other important changes, although less significant, are the establishment of reproductive groups on the farms, genetic improvement of herds by absorbing the dairy breed Florida and improving goat productivity. Most changes have focused on intensifying the productive systems. Some drivers behind these changes are the loss of grazing as a feed source for goats, acceptable prices for the purchase of feeds during the period studied, the increase in milk demand from industry, EU aids and willingness of the farmers to improve their working conditions. Evolutions of purchase feed and sold milk prices together with EU agricultural policy evolution will determine the future of dairy goat production. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Verdejo-Lucas S.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Talavera M.,Ifapa Centro Camino Of Purchil | Andres M.F.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Crop Protection

In a comparison of reproductive traits of 29 field populations of Meloidogyne spp. on resistant and susceptible tomatoes, 48% of the populations were virulent against the Mi.1 gene. Virulent populations produced more (P< 0.05) egg masses/plant, eggs/plant, eggs/g root, and showed higher infection frequencies and multiplication rates than the avirulent populations. The fecundity of females did not differ between the resistant and susceptible genotype, and did not change with the virulence status of the populations. On the resistant genotype, the populations collected from the susceptible tomato showed lower (P< 0.05) reproductive traits than those collected from rootstocks followed by those from resistant tomato. Meloidogyne javanica produced more (P< 0.05) egg masses/plant and eggs/g root than Meloidogyne incognita on the resistant genotype. A time course experiment was conducted to determine if root penetration by M. javanica populations with different Mi.1 virulence status is conditioned by the expression of resistance on tomato. Significant differences between populations were observed as early as of 2 days post-inoculation on the susceptible genotype. On the resistant genotype, low juvenile numbers from populations with acquired virulence penetrated the roots up to 4 dpi, but their numbers significantly increased 7 dpi. Juveniles of the natural virulent population followed similar penetration pattern on the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Peroxidases are involved in the oxidative burst typically associated with the hypersensitive response in incompatible host-pathogen interactions. Isoelectrofocusing isozyme analysis revealed an increase in the peroxidase activity on the resistant genotype after inoculation with the avirulent population and to a lesser degree with the populations with acquired virulence in comparison with the natural virulent population. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mena Y.,University of Seville | Nahed J.,Colegio de Mexico | Ruiz F.A.,Ifapa Centro Camino Of Purchil | Sanchez-Munoz J.B.,Autonomous University of Chiapas | And 2 more authors.

Organic farming conserves natural resources, promotes biodiversity, guarantees animal welfare and obtains healthy products from raw materials through natural processes. In order to evaluate possibilities of increasing organic animal production, this study proposes a farm-scale multicriteria method for assessing the conversion of dairy goat systems to the organic model. In addition, a case study in the Northern Sierra of Seville, southern Spain, is analysed. A consensus of expert opinions and a field survey are used to validate a list of potential indicators and issues for assessing the conversion, which consider not only the European Community regulations for organic livestock farming, but also agroecological principles. As a result, the method includes 56 variables integrated in nine indicators: Nutritional management, Sustainable pasture management, Soil fertility and contamination, Weed and pest control, Disease prevention, Breeds and reproduction, Animal welfare, Food safety and Marketing and management. The nine indicators are finally integrated in a global index named OLPI (Organic Livestock Proximity Index). Application of the method to a case study with 24 goat farms reveals an OLPI value of 46.5% for dairy goat farms located in mountain areas of southern Spain. The aspects that differ most from the agroecological model include soil management, animal nutrition and product marketing. Results of the case study indicate that the proposed method is easy to implement and is useful for quantifying the approximation of conventional farms to an organic model. © 2011 The Animal Consortium. Source

Van Henten E.J.,Wageningen University | Son J.E.,Seoul National University | Castilla N.,Ifapa Centro Camino Of Purchil
Acta Horticulturae

Firstly, this article discusses the greenhouse engineering situation in three geographic areas which are relevant in the field of protected cultivation: Northern Asia, The Netherlands and the Mediterranean. For each area, the prevailing greenhouse type and equipment is briefly described. Secondly, the main technological constraints are pointed out and finally the research directions are discussed. For all areas under consideration, attempts to design more efficient greenhouse systems are under way. In Northern Asia progress is being made towards the optimisation of greenhouses as a solar collector and to the development of new heating strategies. Important subjects addressed in The Netherlands are energy conservation and the replacement or alleviation of human labour by increasing mechanisation. In the Mediterranean there is growing interest in semiclosed greenhouses with CO 2 enrichment and control of excessive humidity. All geographic areas share the need of having an optimised climate control based on the crop response to the greenhouse environment. All areas also share the requirement of being respectful to the environment, therefore future greenhouses are expected to use engineering to produce with minimal or zero emissions. Source

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