IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino

Huelva, Spain

IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino

Huelva, Spain
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Martinez-Pita I.,Ifapa Centro Agua Del Pino | Garcia F.J.,Pablo De Olavide University | Pita M.-L.,University of Seville
Helgoland Marine Research | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to analyze male and female gonad fatty acids of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula, from the south coast of Spain. Additionally, we investigated possible differences between two locations. The ovaries of both species showed higher percentages of 14:0, 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and 18:4n-3 than testes and lower levels of 18:0, 22:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-3. In P. lividus but not in A. lixula, the level of 20:5n-3 was higher in testes than in ovaries. These differences between sexes probably indicate different requirements of males and females during gametogenesis although the presence of a large number of gametes in the mature gonad may also have influences on fatty acid composition. Significant differences in gonad fatty acid profiles where also found when individuals of P. lividus collected at a location of the Mediterranean region were compared with specimens collected at the Atlantic coast. The most remarkable changes were the lower levels of 14:0, 18:1n-7, 20:1n-9, 20:4n-6 and 22:4n-6 and the higher values of 20:1n-11, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 found in males and females of the Mediterranean specimens compared to those of the Atlantic coast. These differences probably reflect the differences in potential food sources at each location. © 2009 Springer-Verlag and AWI.

Herrera M.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | Ruiz-Jarabo I.,University of Cádiz | Vargas-Chacoff L.,University of Cádiz | Vargas-Chacoff L.,Austral University of Chile | And 2 more authors.
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2015

In this work, we have assessed the effects of different stocking densities on the biometry, survival and physiological status of the wedge sole (Dicologoglossa cuneata), focusing on changes in the stress system and intermediate metabolism, with the aim of determining a stress indicator for chronic-stress situations in this species. Wedge sole were kept at three different stocking densities (0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 kg m-3) for 197 days, and survival, growth, plasma metabolites, cortisol and enzymatic activities were assessed. Survival rates were the highest at low density, though growth did not vary significantly among treatments. Enzymatic activities, mainly in muscle, differed depending on stocking density. Liver hexokinase activity at low stocking density was the highest, while no differences were detected for the other enzymes assessed. In muscle, all enzymes significantly increased in activity with stocking density. We concluded that long-term high stocking density culture significantly changed enzyme activities (hexokinase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in wedge sole muscle, although liver enzymes, plasma cortisol and metabolites did not vary significantly. Therefore, muscle enzymes, hexokinase and glutamate dehydrogenase, could be considered stress indicators for this species in chronic-stress situations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Fernandez-Diaz C.,IFAPA Centro El Toruno | Coste O.,IFAPA Centro El Toruno | Malta E.-J.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino
Algal Research | Year: 2017

The potential of chitosan-based nanoparticles to incorporate ulvan was investigated and the immunostimulant properties of ulvan polysaccharide as nanocarrier in Solea senegalensis macrophage were evaluated. Ulvan native extract (UL) and ulvan fractionated by chemical (ULQ) or enzymatic (ULE) methods were obtained from Ulva ohnoi macroalgae in culture. These different ulvan types were tested for their ability to form polymeric nanoparticles. Nanoparticles including either unaltered or fractionated ulvan were prepared by ionotropic gelation and characterized. Activity of the ulvan-loaded nanoparticles was tested in vitro on fish macrophages against free unaltered or fractioned ulvan extract. Intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from the different ulvan products was determined in S. senegalensis macrophages using oxidative burst assay. The native ulvan extract (UL) as well as the fractioned form (ULQ and ULE) successfully yielded nanoparticles with a size of 250–300 nm and with a Z-potential of 30–40 mV. Highest nanoparticle production was achieved using ulvan native extract (NPsUL). Our results indicate that the configuration of the structure of ulvan molecules influence the immune response; in this way, unaltered ulvan is required for successful stimulation of Solea macrophages by Ulva ohnoi polysaccharides. This immune response significantly increases when unaltered ulvan is nanoencapsulated. We conclude that the here developed hybrid polysaccharide nanoparticles composed of chitosan and ulvan are functional. This might open the way for production of nanocarriers that can be used for oral administration of active compounds in aquaculture. © 2017

Based on the microalgae Isochrysis galbana clone T-iso (Ti), Chaetoceros gracilis (Cg) and Tetraselmis suecica (Ts), in the present investigation 8 different feeding regimes were trialed for Mytilus galloprovincialis larval culture: starvation, 3 monospecific diets (Ti; Cg; Ts), 3 bispecific diets (Ti. +. Cg; Ti. +. Ts; Cg. +. Ts) and the trispecific diet Ti. +. Cg. +. Ts. The effect of these feeding regimes on several culture parameters (survival, growth, development, competency and settlement) was assessed, and total lipid and fatty acid composition of larvae were analyzed. Our results revealed that specimens were not able to feed on Ts during their earliest development phases, and cultures deprived of ingestible food showed signs of starvation at 8-9. days post fertilization. The diets Ti. +. Cg, Cg. +. Ts and Ti. +. Cg. +. Ts showed better results than the rest in one or more culture parameters. Although the presence of Cg in a mixed diet seemed to be advantageous, the monospecific diet Cg entailed unexpected larval crushes as well as competency and settlement impairments. The comparative analysis of fatty acid compositions of larvae and diets provided showed that: (i) larvae have a certain capacity for fatty acid regulation, including some de novo biosynthesis; (ii) larvae seem to gain new synthesis capacities with metamorphosis, and (iii) the lack of some polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially docosahexaenoic acid), together with excessive levels of arachidonic acid, might have caused the poor results obtained with the monospecific diet Cg. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Malta E.-J.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | de Nys R.,James Cook University
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2016

One of the main challenges of seaweed culture is to maximize the content of potentially valuable carbon constituents while maintaining high growth rates, thereby improving the value of culture process. This may be achieved by the manipulation of cultivation conditions, inducing a short-term imbalance in carbon metabolism. Here, we tested this concept in the chlorophyte seaweed Ulva ohnoi in a pilot land-based seaweed cultivation system. A first experiment used an abrupt 95 % reduction in water flow and therefore nutrient flux. The content of carbohydrate and lipid of Ulva increased by 16 and 14 % respectively within 2 days compared to the control, whereas growth rates decreased by <5 %. Consequently, the total yield of carbohydrate and lipid increased by ≥10 % compared to the control treatment. A second experiment used a reduction in the density of Ulva under culture by 50 % compared to a control thereby significantly increasing light and the proportional supply of nutrients. The growth rate of Ulva increased by 50 % within 4 days compared to the control, however, there was no change in biochemical composition. Photosynthetic efficiency (effective and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II using Chl a fluorescence) did not respond to the conditions in both experiments. We conclude that short-term treatments can contribute to a preharvest strategy to either improve the biochemical composition or the growth rate of cultivated algae that can in turn lead to an increased yield of targeted compounds. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Martinez-Pita I.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | Sanchez-Lazo C.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | Garcia F.J.,Pablo De Olavide University
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2016

The effect of microalga lipid composition on the reproduction of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis has been assessed to determine the best feeding strategy for producing large quantities of mussel seed. Three diets based on two microalgae Isochrysis galbana (clon T-iso) and Chaetoceros gracilis were tested. Besides, hatchery groups were compared with mussels from natural populations. Lipid content and fatty acid profile of digestive gland and mantle of both sexes, eggs and microalgae were analysed and related to sexual maturation. Hatchery groups, specifically the one fed on T-iso, showed better results in reproduction success, and these differences were reflected on tissue and egg lipid composition. Microalga fatty acid profile influenced tissues and sexes, and higher levels of 18:1n-9, 22:6n-3 (DHA) and 18:2n-6 were detected in groups fed on T-iso while higher level of 20:5n-3 (EPA) and 16:1n-7 in groups fed on C. gracilis. Evidence of synthesis capacity of EPA from 18:4n-3 and DHA from EPA is detected comparing their levels and the mobilization between tissues. Egg fatty acid profile was influenced by the female diet, and differences among groups were detected and confirmed by PCAs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Lopez J.R.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | Hamman-Khalifa A.M.,University of Granada | Navas J.I.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | De la Herran R.,University of Granada
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2011

The aims of this work were to characterize the 16S-23S internal spacer region of the fish pathogen Tenacibaculum soleae and to develop a PCR assay for its identification and detection. All T. soleae strains tested displayed a single internal spacer region class, containing tRNAIle and tRNAAla genes; nevertheless, a considerable intraspecific heterogeneity was observed. However, this region proved to be useful for differentiation of T. soleae from related and non-related species. Species-specific primers were designed targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the internal spacer region region, yielding a 1555-bp fragment. Detection limit was of 1 pg DNA per reaction (< 30 bacterial cells) when using pure cultures. The detection level in the presence of DNA from fish or other bacteria was lower; however, 10 pg were detected at a target/background ratio of 1 105. The PCR assay proved to be more sensitive than agar cultivation for the detection of T. soleae from naturally diseased fish, offering a useful tool for diagnosis and for understanding the epidemiology of this pathogen. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Mellano F.,National University of Santiago del Estero | Bujalance M.,University of Huelva | Giraldez I.,University of Huelva | Ruiz-Azcona P.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2013

A method based on stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized for the determination of seleno-methyl-selenocysteine (SeMetSeCys) and selenomethionine (SeMet) in biota samples. Aliquots of freeze-dried tissue, a mixture of protease XIV-lipase and water were sonicated for 2min. After extraction, the extract was separated by centrifugation and subjected to derivatization and SBSE-TD-GC-MS. The parameters affecting derivatization, absorption and desorption steps were investigated. The optimized conditions consist of a derivatization with 40μL of ethyl chloroformate (ECF) in 400μL of a water:ethanol:pyridine (60:32:8) mixture, followed by dilution to 1.5mL of 70g NaClL-1 in water at neutral pH and an extraction step using 10mm×1mm PDMS stir bar, stirring at 800rpm for 20min at room temperature (23±1°C). Three stir bars were used for the extraction of three different aliquots of the same sample and then placed in a single glass desorption liner and simultaneously desorbed for GC-MS analysis. The desorption step required the following conditions: 300°C (desorption temperature), 6min (desorption time), 50mLmin-1 (vent flow) and -5°C (cryotrapping temperature). The method provided precise (8.1%) and accurate results in the mgSekg-1 range (using the selected-ion monitoring-SIM mode) against certified reference material SELM-1 yeast, with recoveries higher than 80% for spiked algae and clams samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Martinez-Pita I.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | Sanchez-Lazo C.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | Ruiz-Jarabo I.,University of Cádiz | Herrera M.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | Mancera J.M.,University of Cádiz
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

The mobilization of nutrients and sexual hormone changes during the reproductive cycle of the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), as well as sex related differences have been assessed using adults brought from the field. Metabolites (glucose and glycogen) and lipid composition were determined in the mantle and digestive gland. Moreover, glucose and aminoacids in hemolymph have also been measured. Glucose and glycogen values were lower in ripeness stage in both sexes and tissues analyzed as well as glucose in hemolymph. Glucose was mobilized during sexual maturation to be accumulated as glycogen, which was used as an energy source explaining the low levels in ripeness stage. Lipid content enhanced with ripening in the female mantle while in the digestive gland increased at the beginning but decreased at the end in both sexes. These results suggested the accumulation of lipid for larval development in eggs as well as the energy source during gametogenesis. Triglycerides and phospholipids were the major lipid components in both sexes and tissues assessed, showing several changes mainly in males. Increasing levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) during gonad maturation mainly due to 22:6n-3 (DHA), have been also observed.Total lipids were higher in females than in males, while triglicerides dominated in females and phospholipids in males. The main fatty acids in both sexes were 16:0, 20:5n-3 (EPA) and DHA. Females showed higher percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and lower level of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) than males. Sexual hormones have also been analyzed and changes in progesterone and 17-β estradiol during gonadal development have been detected in both sexes.These data will help hatchery managers to determine the best nutritive strategy for producing large quantities of mussel seed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Herrera M.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | Hachero-Cruzado I.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | Naranjo A.,IFAPA Centro Agua del Pino | Mancera J.M.,University of Cádiz
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries | Year: 2010

In this work, several features during the wedge sole larval development have been described. The newly hatched larva presented an acidophilic yolk with some oil drops. The digestive tract began to differentiate at 1 DAH, with a loop being discernible. The pancreas and liver were completely formed at 2 DAH, the former showing its typical basophilic acinar structure and acidophilic zymogen granules. The first supranuclear vesicles in enterocytes were seen at 3 DAH. At 4 DAH, yolk reserves were completely exhausted, the number of oesophagus and intestine mucous cells increased, and the heart was differentiated into four chambers: the venous sinus, atrium, ventricle, and arterious bulb. The development was fast and almost all organs were differentiated at 2 DAH. It is important to emphasize that gastric glands were not detected, a factor that should be considered when deciding diet formulation and feeding strategies for the rearing of this species. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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