Granada, Spain
Granada, Spain

Time filter

Source Type

Vela M.D.,IFAPA Chipiona | Gine A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Lopez-Gomez M.,IRTA Sustainable Plant Protection | Sorribas F.J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

The present research was undertaken to evaluate the effects of soil temperature on the life cycle of root-knot nematodes (RKN) on zucchini-squash in growth chambers and to assess the relationship between Meloidogyne incognita soil population densities at planting (Pi), its multiplication rate, and crop losses of zucchini in field conditions. Thermal requirements for M. incognita and M. javanica were determined by cultivating zucchini plants in pots inoculated with 200 second stage juveniles (J2) of each Meloidogyne species at constant temperatures of 17, 21, 25, and 28 °C. Number of days from nematode inoculation until appearance of egg laying females and until egg hatching were separately recorded. For life cycle completion, base temperatures (Tb) of 12 ºC and 10.8 ºC and accumulated degree-days above Tb (S) of 456 and 526, were estimated for M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. The relationship between fruit weight and M. incognita Pi fits the Seinhorst damage function, but differed accordingly to the cropping season, spring or autumn. Tolerance limits for M. incognita on zucchini were 8.1 J2 per 250 cm3 of soil in spring and 1.5 in autumn cropping cycles, and the minimum relative yields were 0.61 in spring and 0.69 in autumn. Zucchini-squash was a poorer host for M. incognita in spring than in autumn, since maximum multiplication rates (a) and equilibrium densities (E) were lower in spring (a = 16–96; E = 274–484) than in autumn (a = 270–2307; E = 787–1227). © 2014, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.


Melero-Vara J.M.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Lopez-Herrera C.J.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Basallote-Ureba M.J.,Institute Investigacion y Formacion Agraria y Pesquera IFAPA Las Torres Tomejil | Prados A.M.,IFAPA Alameda del Obispo | And 4 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2012

The effectiveness of a combination of soil solarization and poultry manure (raw or pelletized) amendments for the control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) was tested in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) crops grown in in-ground beds under plastic-covered greenhouse conditions in southern Spain. Our trials demonstrated that soil solarization alone did not provide sufficient control of root-knot nematode, because the carnation growing season in this region only partly coincides with the most effective period for solarization, resulting in an insufficient duration of treatment during a key period for effectiveness. Chemical fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin prior to planting was effective in reducing nematode population densities in soil. Its effects spanned 9 months after planting, resulting in acceptable crop yields. In comparison, the combination of soil solarization and raw or pelletized poultry manure was slightly less effective than chemical fumigation for control of this pathogen but crop yields after 9 months were similar. However, the higher root gall indices observed after 9 months, in comparison with chemically fumigated plots, indicated the need for a reapplication of the organic manure treatment at the start of each successive growing season. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.


Nahed-Toral J.,Colegio de Mexico | Sanchez-Munoz B.,Autonomous University of Chiapas | Mena Y.,University of Seville | Ruiz-Rojas J.,Autonomous University of Chiapas | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2012

In the municipality of Tecpatan, Chiapas, in Southeastern Mexico, traditional agrosilvopastoral systems of dairy production have great potential for conversion to the organic production model. The objective of this study was to characterize silvopastoral systems and evaluate the potential of converting traditional agrosilvopastoral systems to the organic model. Researchers studied 75 cattle farms belonging to three Rural Production Societies (RPS; rural cooperatives): RPS Grijalva (RPS-G: n = 35), RPS Pomanoza (RPS-P: n = 22) and RPS Malpaso (RPS-M: n = 18). For this, researchers used as a guide the multi-criteria methodology of the Organic Livestock Proximity Index (OLPI) proposed by Mena adapting it to suit the purposes. In the current study, researchers designed a new OLPI with 35 variables which integrate 10 indicators. Information was obtained through direct observation and a questionnaire applied to producers. Statistical analysis of the results of 10 indicators used did not show significant differences among rural production societies. The same was true for the organic conversion nidex (p>0.05: RPS-G = 62.5%; RPS-M = 63.4% and RPS-P = 64.6%). The data suggest that all cattle farms need to substantially improve veterinary care, safety of milking, quality of milk and dairy products, ecological management and sustainable grassland management. In general, producers of the three rural production societies should be trained in a variety of organic cattle production and management techniques so that cattle farms may achieve a closer approximation to the organic model of production and thus may be certified. © Medwell Journals, 2012.


Nahed-Toral J.,Colegio de Mexico | Sanchez-Munoz B.,Autonomous University of Chiapas | Mena Y.,University of Seville | Ruiz-Rojas J.,Autonomous University of Chiapas | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013

In the municipality of Tecpatan, Chiapas, in southeastern Mexico, it is highly feasible to convert traditional agrosilvopastoral systems of dairy production to the organic production model. The objective of this study was to characterize silvopastoral systems and evaluate the feasibility of converting traditional agrosilvopastoral systems to the organic model. We studied 75 cattle farms belonging to three Rural Production Societies (RPS; rural cooperatives): (i) RPS Grijalva (RPS-G: n = 35), (ii) RPS Pomarroza (RPS-P: n = 22), and (iii) RPS Malpaso (RPS-M: n = 18). For this, we used as a guide the multi-criteria methodology of the Organic Livestock Proximity Index (OLPI) proposed by Mena et al. (2011), adapting it to suit our purposes. In the current study, we designed a new OLPI with 35 variables which integrate 10 indicators. Information was obtained through direct observation and a questionnaire applied to producers. Statistical analysis of the results of 10 indicators used did not show significant differences among rural production societies. The same was true for the organic conversion index (p > 0.05: RPS-G = 62.5%; RPS-M = 63.4%, and RPS-P = 64.6%). The data suggest that all cattle farms need to substantially improve veterinary care, safety of milking, quality of milk and dairy products, ecological management, and sustainable grassland management. In general, producers of the three rural production societies should be trained in a variety of organic cattle production and management techniques so that cattle farms may achieve a closer approximation to the organic model of production and thus may be certified. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Diaz-Hernandez J.L.,IFAPA Camino de Purchil | Lopez-Galindo A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

Particulate matter suspended in air mainly consists of a complex, multiphase system. Its nature is largely mineral at a global scale, and it has a significant physicochemical impact on the Earth's atmosphere and on biogeochemical cycles. These mineral phases come mainly from windblown soil processes, mostly from great deserts. Despite their importance, the behaviour of their airborne components in time and space is not well known. This study found that the rate of mineral deposition over an annual cycle in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula was 26.03 g m-2 yr-1, with maxima in spring and summer. Using powder X-Ray diffraction techniques, this value has been broken down as follows (in g m-2 yr-1): quartz (4.90), dolomite (3.36), calcite (3.28), micas (2.97), smectites (2.10), halite (1.84), kaolinite (1.82), sulphates (1.28), amorphous matter (1.15), feldspars (0.18) and graphite (0.17). Although quartz normally is the major individual component of solid particles in the atmosphere-carbonates (calcite + dolomite) can exceed quartz, and phyllosilicates can total as much as carbonates. Clay minerals correlate well with salts (sulphates and halite), and there is an antagonistic relation between sulphates and calcite. Amorphous matter consists of a mixture of metal oxides and organic compounds, among others. Graphite, a net anthropogenic constituent of atmospheric dust, only represents minor quantities. The behavioural differences of the minerals are due to their different reactivity, based on their intrinsic properties of specific surface area, deliquescence, swelling and water retention capacity, and the presence of metallic and exchangeable cations. Smectites seem to play an essential role in the atmospheric processing of SO2 and in secondary sulphate genesis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Gine A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Lopez-Gomez M.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Vela M.D.,IFAPA Chipiona | Ornat C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | And 3 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Several studies were carried out to determine (i) thermal requirements for development, egg production and emergence of juveniles, and completion of the life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica on cucumber, (ii) the maximum multiplication rate and the equilibrium density of root-knot nematodes on cucumber and yield losses in pot and plastic greenhouse experiments, and (iii) the relationships between relative leaf chlorophyll content (RLCC) and relative cucumber dry top weight biomass (RDTWB) in relation to increasing nematode densities at planting (Pi) in pot experiments. Thermal requirements of M. incognita and M. javanica on cucumber did not differ, irrespective of the biological stage. In the pot experiments, M. javanica completed one generation. The maximum multiplication rate (a) was 833, and the equilibrium density (E) varied according to the effective inoculum densities. The relationship between RDTWB and Pi fitted the Seinhorst damage function model. The RLCC value at 40 or 50 days post-inoculation also fitted the damage model and was related to RDTWB. In greenhouse experiments, conducted from 2009 to 2012, M. incognita completed three generations. The values for a and E were 1147 and 625 second stage juveniles (J2) per 250 cm3 soil, respectively. The tolerance limit was below zero, and the minimum relative yield ranged from 0·12 to 0·34. © 2014 British Society for Plant Pathology.


Gonzalez-Redondo P.,University of Seville | Delgado-Pertinez M.,University of Seville | Toribio S.,University of Seville | Ruiz F.A.,IFAPA Camino de Purchil | And 3 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

This study was aimed to characterise and typify the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) game farms in Spain using variables related to structure and marketing. A structured survey was carried out on 63 farms in 2008. A multiple correspondence analysis performed to characterise the farms yielded two dimensions. First dimension explained 45.1% of the variance and included the variables age of the farm and number of pairs in the breeding flock. Second dimension explained 35.9% of the variance and included the variables the farm sells hatching eggs and the farm has a hunting preserve where releasing part of the partridges produced. A cluster analysis differentiated three farm typologies. Farm type 1 included 36 complete-cycle farms mainly established until 1996, most of them having 1 to 999 pairs in the breeding flock. Farm type 2 included 11 farms without breeding flock established since 2003. Farm type 3 included 16 complete cycle farms established between 1997 and 2002, most of them being the highest with 1,000 onwards breeding pairs, and carrying out artificial photoperiod supplementation of the breeding pairs. Half of the farms in this group sell hatching egg, have ever exported partridges, and most of them have a hunting preserve where releasing part of the production. The establishment of red-legged partridge game farms increased until 2002, declining thereafter and shifting towards the second farm type without breeding flock. This alternative poultry production system could have reached its development maturity and is a sub-sector well established in Spain, despite being only four decades old.


Diaz-Hernandez J.L.,IFAPA Camino de Purchil | Sanchez-Navas A.,University of Granada | Sanchez-Navas A.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Iact Csic Ugr | Reyes E.,Instituto Andaluz Of Ciencias Of La Tierra Iact Csic Ugr
Chemical Geology | Year: 2013

Dolomite formation in soils constitute a particular challenge because of: 1) scant magnesium content in continental environments as opposed to the marine medium, 2) the kinetic problem related to the incorporation of magnesium into the carbonate, and 3) the unknown role of soil dolomites in the global carbon cycle. Pedogenic dolomite formed at deeper soil levels (subsoil) before the development of petrocalcic horizon barriers was investigated in a semiarid region of SE Spain (Guadix-Baza basin). Mineralogical characterization, textural relationships and isotopic data concerning soil dolomite, together with the results of a precipitation experiment, provided fuller knowledge of the processes and conditions governing neoformation of dolomite in these soils. In the study case, dolomite enrichment occurs beyond the limit of major biological activity, which coincides with the rooting depth of native perennial plants in the semiarid soils studied. Textural studies reveal the corrosion of inherited dolomite crystals in the upper soil horizons and the formation of dolomite in depth in relation to a clayey material, composed mainly of smectites. Stable isotope distribution in dolomites throughout the profiles indicates a fractionation with depth. This is explained by the formation of dolomites after the dissolution of the pedogenic calcite. The calcite detected in the subsoil is interpreted here as a precursor of the neoformed dolomites that transport the isotopic signal associated with biological activity of soils to deeper layers. Dolomite formation appears to be favoured by the presence of clay minerals in the precipitation media. Clays retain water during evapotranspiration stages, which drastically change the transport properties of the media and promote the incorporation of Mg into the structure of the neoformed Ca,Mg-carbonate. As confirmed by laboratory experiments, diffusion-controlled crystal-growth processes lead to the formation a precursory "protodolomite" with disordered Ca,Mg distribution from a fluid locally supersaturated in dolomite. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Baeza E.J.,University of Almeria | Stanghellini C.,Wageningen University | Castilla N.,IFAPA Camino de Purchil
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

During the last decades, the horticultural production in Europe has gradually moved from the northern countries towards the Mediterranean basin. Two welldifferentiated agrosystems can be distinguished as predominant in each area. The northern agrosystems (the most paradigmatic example is The Netherlands), sophisticated and oriented towards high yields and highly dependent on energy and expensive technology, and the southern agrosystems (the south-east of Spain is the best example), based on low investments, low yields and low dependency on energy. The main trends in the northern agrosystems are to develop innovations that reduce costs (mainly by saving energy) and increasing production, through improved optical and thermic properties of the cover material (diffusive and antireflective glass, NIR filters, etc.) and improved climate and crop management (semi-closed greenhouses, robotics, de-humidification strategies, etc.). The trend in the southern agrosystem is to improve yield with moderate investments: improve the greenhouse structures (enhancing the light transmission in winter, optimizing the natural ventilation systems, collecting condensation, increasing tightness, etc.), using better covering materials (anti-pest plastic films, more diffusive films, etc.) and improving equipment (combination of passive techniques like double covers with cheap heating systems, or biomass heating, implementation of CO2 enrichment systems, fog or mist systems, etc.). Another trend is to move summer production to cooler areas using simple screenhouse structures to complement the year-round supply of vegetables. Diversification of crops would also be desirable, because until now diversification has mostly been limited to different presentations of the same products. Marketing is dominated by a market driven approach, with consumers demanding high quality and environmentally safe products, forcing the growers to set up integral quality management systems and in the case of Mediterranean countries, as stated before, to find the balance between investing in new technology and maintaining the benefits, having to choose between different available technological packages.


Diaz-Hernandez J.L.,Ifapa Camino de Purchil
Chemosphere | Year: 2010

An accurate evaluation of the carbon stored in soils is essential to fully understand the role of soils as source or sink of atmospheric CO2, as well as the feedback processes involved in soil-atmosphere CO2 exchange. Depth and strategies of sampling have been, and still are, sources of uncertainties, because most current estimates of carbon storage in soils are based on conventional soil surveys and data sets compiled primarily for agricultural purposes. In a study of the Guadix-Baza basin, a semiarid area of southern Spain, sizeable amounts of carbon have been found stored in the subsoil. Total carbon estimated within 2-m was 141.3kgCm-2 compared to 36.1kgCm-2 if estimates were based solely on conventional soil depths (e.g. 40-cm in Regosols and 100-cm in Fluvisols). Thus, the insufficient sampling depth could lead to considerable underestimation of global soil carbon. In order to correctly evaluate the carbon content in world soils, more specific studies must be planned and carried out, especially in those soils where caliche and other carbonated cemented horizons are present. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Loading IFAPA Camino de Purchil collaborators
Loading IFAPA Camino de Purchil collaborators