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Herrera M.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Aragao C.,University of Algarve | Hachero I.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Ruiz-Jarabo I.,University of Cádiz | And 4 more authors.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The physiological responses of Senegalese sole to a sudden salinity change were investigated. The fish were first acclimated to an initial salinity of 37.5 ppt for 4 h. Then, one group was subjected to increased salinity (55 ppt) while another group was subjected to decreased salinity (5 ppt). The third group (control group) remained at 37.5 ppt. We measured the oxygen consumption rate, osmoregulatory (plasma osmolality, gill and kidney Na+,K+-ATPase activities) and stress (plasma cortisol and metabolites) parameters 0. 5 and 3 h after transfer. Oxygen consumption at both salinities was higher than for the control at both sampling times. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was significantly higher for the 55 ppt salinity at 0.5 h. Plasma osmolality decreased in the fish exposed to 5 ppt at the two sampling times but no changes were detected for high salinities. Plasma cortisol levels significantly increased at both salinities, although these values declined in the low-salinity group 3 h after transfer. Plasma glucose at 5 ppt salinity did not vary significantly at 0.5 h but decreased at 3 h, while lactate increased for both treatments at the first sampling time and returned to the control levels at 3 h. Overall, the physiological response of S. senegalensis was immediate and involved a rise in oxygen consumption and plasma cortisol values as well as greater metabolite mobilization at both salinities. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Baeza-Rojano E.,University of Seville | Hachero-Cruzado I.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Guerra-Garcia J.M.,University of Seville
Journal of Sea Research | Year: 2014

Four gammarid and four caprellid amphipod species from the Strait of Gibraltar were analyzed to study their nutritional contents: Caprella dilatata, Caprella equilibra, Caprella grandimana, Caprella penantis, Elasmopus rapax, Hyale perieri and Jassa sp. from marine water habitats and Echinogammarus sp. from freshwater habitats. Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, ash and water contents were measured. Proteins and ash were the most abundant components in all the species, ranging between 37.9 and 44.6% and 29.3 and 39.7% dry weight, respectively. The lipid and carbohydrate contents showed lower levels (5.1-9.6% and 3.1-9.1% dry weight, respectively). No significant differences in general biochemical composition were found between gammarid and caprellid species. The most abundant fatty acids were the polyunsaturated ones (38.3%) with high levels of EPA (20:5(n-3)) with 8.5 to 17.7%, DHA (22:6(n-3)) with 0.9 to 13.6% and ARA (20:4(n-6)) with 1.7 to 5.8%. Caprellid species were characterized by a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while the freshwater gammarid species showed the lowest levels. According to lipid classes, caprellids had higher phospholipids levels and lower triacylglycerol levels, as well as a higher content of polar lipids than the gammarids, being more suitable for their use in aquaculture. Differences in the general biochemical composition between species can be related to habitat characteristics, diets and environmental conditions. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of these organisms in aquaculture are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Baeza-Rojano E.,University of Seville | Calero-Cano S.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Hachero-Cruzado I.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Guerra-Garcia J.M.,University of Seville
Journal of Sea Research | Year: 2013

The caprellid amphipod Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 was investigated as a mass culture organism, for potential use as natural prey in aquaculture. C. scaura showed good population growth during 3months of culturing with nauplii of Artemia sp. and microalgae as food source. A final mean population size of 12,510.67individuals/tank and a maximum density of 10,460individualsm-2 were obtained; a 50-fold increase of the initial population was observed. Juveniles were the most abundant stage in the culture (86.0% of total), followed by mature females (5.4%) and immature males (3.1%). Three kinds of plastic mesh with different complexity levels were used as artificial substrates for amphipods to attach to and shelter. There were no significant differences in the total number of individuals present on each kind of mesh, although female and male adults were more abundant in folded meshes with larger pore diameter. This research demonstrated that the caprellid amphipod C. scaura may be readily cultured at high densities with a variety of mesh morphologies allowing more efficient use of tank volume and improved handling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Herrera M.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Castanheira M.F.,University of Algarve | Conceicao L.E.C.,University of Algarve | Martins C.I.,University of Algarve
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2014

Risk taking and avoidance responses during confinement have been identified in a variety of species, including fish. In addition, differences in metabolic rate have also been attributed to divergent personalities, coping styles or behavioral types. In this study we disclose for the first time a link between risk taking and the behavioral responses and oxygen consumption under confinement stress in the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata. Fish were submitted to a risk-taking test twice to determine the consistency of behavioral responses. Afterwards fish were transferred to individual confinement chambers where their swimming activity and oxygen consumption were measured. Latency to take risks was negatively correlated to both movement and oxygen consumption rates, indicating that risk-avoiders (long latency) were less active and, hence, did not consume so much oxygen as risk-takers. In conclusion, this work reports the first data on the links between risk-taking and the behavioral responses and oxygen consumption during a confinement stress in fish. The relationships between behavioral and physiological variables are significant, suggesting the existence of divergent coping styles in gilthead seabream. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Baeza-Rojano E.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Marina | Garcia S.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Garrido D.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Guerra-Garcia J.M.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Marina | Domingues P.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

The effects of feeding two alternative live prey (exclusively caprellids (Caprella equilibra) or several species of gammarids, mainly Ericthonius brasiliensis, Jassa marmorata and Elasmopus sp.), to cuttlefish hatchlings were compared to feeding mysids (Mesopodopsis slabberi), which are normally used during the first weeks of the life cycle. Weight (g) and growth rates (GR, % BW d - 1) were determined. Cuttlefish hatchlings fed with mysids and gammarids grew faster (6.7 ± 0.4 and 5.7 ± 0.9% BW d - 1, respectively) compared to caprellids (1.6 ± 0.2% BW d - 1). Survival was higher (96.7 ± 5.8%) for hatchlings fed mysids, compared to 83.3 ± 15.3% and 76.7 ± 5.8%, for those fed gammarids and caprellids, respectively. According to the results obtained, gammarids could be used as an alternative prey to mysids, while Caprella equilibra did not deliver appropriate growth rates and should be disregarded as alternative prey for rearing early stages (hatchlings) of Sepia officinalis. This is the first study revealing a successful use of amphipods, mainly gammarids, as alternative prey for cuttlefish hatchlings. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Rodiles A.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Santigosa E.,University of Almeria | Herrera M.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Hachero-Cruzado I.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture International | Year: 2012

The effect of dietary protein level and protein source on growth and proteolytic activity of juvenile Solea senegalensis was studied. In Experiment 1, fish were fed on four experimental diets containing increased protein levels (36, 46, 56 and 67%). In Experiment 2, Senegalese soles were fed on five diets with partial substitution of fish meal by soybean meal, soybean protein concentrate, soybean protein isolate, wheat gluten meal or pea protein concentrate. Results prove that growth and proteolytic activity in the distal intestine of fish were affected by the quantitative increase in dietary protein. The origin of protein source used in the elaboration of experimental diets affected both the amount and composition of the alkaline proteases secreted into the intestinal lumen; however, it did not decrease animal growth. Juvenile Senegalese sole showed capability to modulate digestive protease secretion when the concentration and/or source of dietary protein were modified. Quantity and quality of dietary protein affected protein hydrolysis in Senegalese sole intestine. This study establishes that 30% fish meal protein can be replaced by soybean derivatives without affecting intestinal proteases. Replacement with wheat gluten meal or pea protein concentrate should be taken cautiously, but further research is needed to establish whether growth performance and digestive enzyme physiology of Senegalese sole are affected by plant protein-supplemented diets in a long-term trial. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Barroso F.G.,University of Almeria | Rodiles A.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Rodiles A.,University of Plymouth | Vizcaino A.J.,University of Almeria | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2013

The Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, is a flatfish with increasing interest in the European aquaculture. However, one of the main limitations found in this species is related to the scarce attraction to commercial aquafeeds, thus determining low feed intake in fish farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate four ingredients of marine origin (fish meal hydrolysate [FMH], polychaete meal [POM], mussel meal [MUM], and squid meal [SQM]) as potential attractants for juvenile Senegalese sole. Four experimental feeds containing 10% of the potential attractants, plus a control diet without these ingredients, were evaluated. A total of 150 fish were distributed into ten 40-L tanks (duplicate tanks per feed). A Latin square design was carried out, and hence all the experimental diets were offered to each tank in successive periods of 7 d. Fish were fed twice a day (morning and afternoon), and the feeding behavior of the animals was assessed by direct observations. Behavioral pattern assessed was classified as distant orientation, near orientation, or continuation of intake. The acceptability index for each behavioral phase and experimental feeds used was established for each observation. No behavioral differences could be noticed between the morning and the afternoon feedings. FMH showed the greatest attractant potential than among the ingredients assessed, and consequently this ingredient yielded the higher feed intake rates. On the other hand, POM was not the best attractant for juvenile Senegalese sole. © World Aquaculture Society 2013.


Sanchez-Lazo C.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Martinez-Pita I.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Young T.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Alfaro A.C.,IFAPA Agua del Pino
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

We investigated the effect on Mytilus galloprovincialis larval settlement, as well as the toxicity, of serial concentrations in filtered seawater of acetylcholine (AC), γ-aminobutiric acid (GABA); 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX); and the potassium ion in the form of potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium sulfate (K2SO4). All the substances assayed induced larval settlement and peak responses were above 90% in exposures to 10-2molL-1 (M) AC, 10-4 and 10-5M epinephrine, 10-3M GABA and 20, 30 and 40mM KCl. The optimal concentration of K+ varied depending on the anionic component of the compound assayed, and peak settlement response to KCl was higher (100%) than that achieved with K2SO4 (69.7%). The estimated LC50 of the compounds assayed ranged from 9.4×10-6M (GABA) to 3.1×10-2M (KCl). GABA, IBMX and K2SO4 treatments displayed toxic effects in all the active concentrations. In contrast, AC 10-5 M, epinephrine 10-4 and 10-5M and KCl 20mM treatments enhanced larval settlement without an acute short-term effect on mortality. These results provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms controlling settlement in M. galloprovincialis larvae, and yield promising outcomes for the mussel industry to find a reliable method to enhance larval settlement in hatcheries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Sanchez-Lazo C.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Martinez-Pita I.,IFAPA Agua del Pino
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

In the current investigation we analyzed the gross biochemical, lipid class and fatty acid composition throughout different developmental stages (namely, egg, D-shaped larva, pediveliger larva and postlarva) of mussel . Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lipid was the main biochemical fraction among egg reserves (counting ca. 80%), and the embryonic activities were fueled by stored triglycerides and esters. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 22:6n3 played a structural role during embryonic development, while monounsaturated fatty acids and other PUFA seemed to be preferentially catabolyzed (e.g. 20:5n3, 18:2n6 or 18:3n3). In the transition from D-shaped to pediveliger larva, all the biochemical fractions increased as nutrients were incorporated exogenously from diet. Non methylene interrupted dienoic fatty acid (NMID) levels were similar to those of some essential fatty acids during development. Lipid fraction increased in postlarvae with respect to pediveliger larvae, and no significant energy losses were detected with metamorphosis. Our results provide useful information for the successful hatchery production of . M. galloprovincialis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Martinez-Pita I.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Sanchez-Lazo C.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Herrera M.,IFAPA Agua del Pino
Aquaculture International | Year: 2016

The concentration of the sex steroids 17β-estradiol, testosterone and progesterone was determined by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the hemolymph of the mussel Mytilusgalloprovincialis and related to its sexual maturation. A non-lethal hemolymph sampling procedure was used in mussels matured in controlled conditions of a hatchery. To our knowledge, this is the first study on sexual steroid hormones of a bivalve species using the same specimens in consecutive samplings. Histological data showed that nearly 90 % of the mussels ripened during the experiment. Steroid analyses revealed that 17β-estradiol and testosterone were closely related to the onset of gamete development, while progesterone would have an important role at the end of gonadal maturity. This method can be used to assess sexual maturation in bivalves when conditioning in hatcheries, without killing them. © 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

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