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Cartaya, Spain

Herrera M.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Castanheira M.F.,University of Algarve | Conceicao L.E.C.,University of Algarve | Martins C.I.,University of Algarve
Applied Animal Behaviour Science | Year: 2014

Risk taking and avoidance responses during confinement have been identified in a variety of species, including fish. In addition, differences in metabolic rate have also been attributed to divergent personalities, coping styles or behavioral types. In this study we disclose for the first time a link between risk taking and the behavioral responses and oxygen consumption under confinement stress in the gilthead seabream Sparus aurata. Fish were submitted to a risk-taking test twice to determine the consistency of behavioral responses. Afterwards fish were transferred to individual confinement chambers where their swimming activity and oxygen consumption were measured. Latency to take risks was negatively correlated to both movement and oxygen consumption rates, indicating that risk-avoiders (long latency) were less active and, hence, did not consume so much oxygen as risk-takers. In conclusion, this work reports the first data on the links between risk-taking and the behavioral responses and oxygen consumption during a confinement stress in fish. The relationships between behavioral and physiological variables are significant, suggesting the existence of divergent coping styles in gilthead seabream. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Baeza-Rojano E.,University of Seville | Hachero-Cruzado I.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Guerra-Garcia J.M.,University of Seville
Journal of Sea Research | Year: 2014

Four gammarid and four caprellid amphipod species from the Strait of Gibraltar were analyzed to study their nutritional contents: Caprella dilatata, Caprella equilibra, Caprella grandimana, Caprella penantis, Elasmopus rapax, Hyale perieri and Jassa sp. from marine water habitats and Echinogammarus sp. from freshwater habitats. Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, ash and water contents were measured. Proteins and ash were the most abundant components in all the species, ranging between 37.9 and 44.6% and 29.3 and 39.7% dry weight, respectively. The lipid and carbohydrate contents showed lower levels (5.1-9.6% and 3.1-9.1% dry weight, respectively). No significant differences in general biochemical composition were found between gammarid and caprellid species. The most abundant fatty acids were the polyunsaturated ones (38.3%) with high levels of EPA (20:5(n-3)) with 8.5 to 17.7%, DHA (22:6(n-3)) with 0.9 to 13.6% and ARA (20:4(n-6)) with 1.7 to 5.8%. Caprellid species were characterized by a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, while the freshwater gammarid species showed the lowest levels. According to lipid classes, caprellids had higher phospholipids levels and lower triacylglycerol levels, as well as a higher content of polar lipids than the gammarids, being more suitable for their use in aquaculture. Differences in the general biochemical composition between species can be related to habitat characteristics, diets and environmental conditions. Advantages and disadvantages of the use of these organisms in aquaculture are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Barroso F.G.,University of Almeria | Rodiles A.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Rodiles A.,University of Plymouth | Vizcaino A.J.,University of Almeria | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2013

The Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, is a flatfish with increasing interest in the European aquaculture. However, one of the main limitations found in this species is related to the scarce attraction to commercial aquafeeds, thus determining low feed intake in fish farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate four ingredients of marine origin (fish meal hydrolysate [FMH], polychaete meal [POM], mussel meal [MUM], and squid meal [SQM]) as potential attractants for juvenile Senegalese sole. Four experimental feeds containing 10% of the potential attractants, plus a control diet without these ingredients, were evaluated. A total of 150 fish were distributed into ten 40-L tanks (duplicate tanks per feed). A Latin square design was carried out, and hence all the experimental diets were offered to each tank in successive periods of 7 d. Fish were fed twice a day (morning and afternoon), and the feeding behavior of the animals was assessed by direct observations. Behavioral pattern assessed was classified as distant orientation, near orientation, or continuation of intake. The acceptability index for each behavioral phase and experimental feeds used was established for each observation. No behavioral differences could be noticed between the morning and the afternoon feedings. FMH showed the greatest attractant potential than among the ingredients assessed, and consequently this ingredient yielded the higher feed intake rates. On the other hand, POM was not the best attractant for juvenile Senegalese sole. © World Aquaculture Society 2013. Source


Herrera M.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Aragao C.,University of Algarve | Hachero I.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Ruiz-Jarabo I.,University of Cadiz | And 4 more authors.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The physiological responses of Senegalese sole to a sudden salinity change were investigated. The fish were first acclimated to an initial salinity of 37.5 ppt for 4 h. Then, one group was subjected to increased salinity (55 ppt) while another group was subjected to decreased salinity (5 ppt). The third group (control group) remained at 37.5 ppt. We measured the oxygen consumption rate, osmoregulatory (plasma osmolality, gill and kidney Na+,K+-ATPase activities) and stress (plasma cortisol and metabolites) parameters 0. 5 and 3 h after transfer. Oxygen consumption at both salinities was higher than for the control at both sampling times. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was significantly higher for the 55 ppt salinity at 0.5 h. Plasma osmolality decreased in the fish exposed to 5 ppt at the two sampling times but no changes were detected for high salinities. Plasma cortisol levels significantly increased at both salinities, although these values declined in the low-salinity group 3 h after transfer. Plasma glucose at 5 ppt salinity did not vary significantly at 0.5 h but decreased at 3 h, while lactate increased for both treatments at the first sampling time and returned to the control levels at 3 h. Overall, the physiological response of S. senegalensis was immediate and involved a rise in oxygen consumption and plasma cortisol values as well as greater metabolite mobilization at both salinities. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Sanchez-Lazo C.,IFAPA Agua del Pino | Martinez-Pita I.,IFAPA Agua del Pino
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

In the current investigation we analyzed the gross biochemical, lipid class and fatty acid composition throughout different developmental stages (namely, egg, D-shaped larva, pediveliger larva and postlarva) of mussel . Mytilus galloprovincialis. Lipid was the main biochemical fraction among egg reserves (counting ca. 80%), and the embryonic activities were fueled by stored triglycerides and esters. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 22:6n3 played a structural role during embryonic development, while monounsaturated fatty acids and other PUFA seemed to be preferentially catabolyzed (e.g. 20:5n3, 18:2n6 or 18:3n3). In the transition from D-shaped to pediveliger larva, all the biochemical fractions increased as nutrients were incorporated exogenously from diet. Non methylene interrupted dienoic fatty acid (NMID) levels were similar to those of some essential fatty acids during development. Lipid fraction increased in postlarvae with respect to pediveliger larvae, and no significant energy losses were detected with metamorphosis. Our results provide useful information for the successful hatchery production of . M. galloprovincialis. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source

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