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Sesto Fiorentino, Italy

Mecklenburg S.,European Space Agency | Drusch M.,European Space Agency | Kaleschke L.,University of Hamburg | Rodriguez-Fernandez N.,CNRS Center for the Study of the Biosphere from Space | And 19 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2016

The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the need for global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations also provide information on vegetation, in particular plant available water and water content in a canopy, drought index and flood risks, surface ocean winds in storms, freeze/thaw state and sea ice and its effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics affecting large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system.Significant progress has been made over the course of the now 6-year life time of the SMOS mission in improving the ESA provided level 1 brightness temperature and level 2 soil moisture and sea surface salinity data products. The main emphasis of this paper is to review the status of the mission and provide an overview and performance assessment of SMOS data products, in particular with a view towards operational applications, and using SMOS products in data assimilation.SMOS is in excellent technical condition with no limiting factors for operations beyond 2017. The instrument performance fulfils the requirements. The radio-frequency interference (RFI) contamination originates from man-made emitters on ground, operating in the protected L-band and adding signal to the natural radiation emitted by the Earth. RFI has been detected worldwide and has been significantly reduced in Europe and the Americas but remains a constraint in Asia and the Middle East. The mission's scientific objectives have been reached over land and are approaching the mission objectives over ocean.This review paper aims to provide an introduction and synthesis to the papers published in this RSE special issue on SMOS. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source


Adriani O.,University of Florence | Adriani O.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Bazilevskaya G.A.,RAS Lebedev Physical Institute | Barbarino G.C.,University of Naples Federico II | And 76 more authors.
JETP Letters | Year: 2013

It is interesting to measure the antiproton galactic component in cosmic rays in order to study the mechanisms by which particles and antiparticles are generated and propagate in the Galaxy and to search for new sources of, e. g., annihilation or decay of dark matter hypothetical particles. The antiproton spectrum and the ratio of the fluxes of primary cosmic ray antiprotons to protons with energies of 60 MeV to 350 GeV found from the data obtained from June 2006 to January 2010 in the PAMELA experiment are presented. The usage of the advanced data processing method based on the data classification mathematical model made it possible to increase statistics and analyze the region of higher energies than in the earlier works. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source


Adriani O.,University of Florence | Adriani O.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Barbarino G.C.,University of Naples Federico II | Barbarino G.C.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | And 67 more authors.
Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2010

The PAMELA satellite experiment has measured the cosmic-ray positron fraction between 1.5 GeV and 100 GeV. The need to reliably discriminate between the positron signal and proton background has required the development of an ad hoc analysis procedure. In this paper, a method for positron identification is described and its stability and capability to yield a correct background estimate is shown. The analysis includes new experimental data, the application of three different fitting techniques for the background sample and an estimate of systematic uncertainties due to possible inaccuracies in the background selection. The new experimental results confirm both solar modulation effects on cosmic-rays with low rigidities and an anomalous positron abundance above 10 GeV. Source


Adriani O.,University of Florence | Adriani O.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Barbarino G.C.,University of Naples Federico II | Barbarino G.C.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | And 70 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The satellite-borne experiment PAMELA has been used to make a new measurement of the cosmic-ray antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio which extends previously published measurements down to 60 MeV and up to 180 GeV in kinetic energy. During 850 days of data acquisition approximately 1500 antiprotons were observed. The measurements are consistent with purely secondary production of antiprotons in the Galaxy. More precise secondary production models are required for a complete interpretation of the results. © 2010 The American Physical Society. Source


Adriani O.,University of Florence | Adriani O.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Barbarino G.C.,University of Naples Federico II | Barbarino G.C.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | And 69 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

The satellite-borne experiment PAMELA has been used to make new measurements of cosmic ray H and He isotopes. The isotopic composition was measured between 100 and 600 MeV/n for hydrogen and between 100 and 900 MeV/n for helium isotopes over the 23rd solar minimum from 2006 July to 2007 December. The energy spectrum of these components carries fundamental information regarding the propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy which are competitive with those obtained from other secondary to primary measurements such as B/C. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

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