Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Scholz-Starke B.,RWTH Aachen | Beylich A.,IFAB Institute fur Angewandte Bodenbiologie GmbH | Moser T.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH | Nikolakis A.,Bayer CropScience | And 5 more authors.
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2013

The EU plant protection regulation 1107/2009/EC defines the requirements for active ingredients to be approved, specifically including the assessment of effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. According to that, semi-field methods are expected to be more important in the near future. Therefore, a higher-tier experiment suitable to assess the risk for soil organisms was conducted to further develop the TME (terrestrial model ecosystems) methodology in a dose-response design with the persistent insecticidal model compound lindane (gamma-HCH). The effects of lindane on soil communities such as collembolans, oribatid mites, nematodes, soil fungi and plant biomass were determined in 42 TME. Intact TME-soil cores (diameter 300 mm, height 400 mm) from undisturbed grassland were stored outdoor under natural climatic conditions. Lindane was applied in five concentrations between 0.032 mg active ingredients (ai)/kg dry soil and 3.2 mg ai/kg dry weight soil, six-fold replicated each. Twelve TME served as untreated controls. Abundance and community structures of oribatids, collembolans, enchytraeids, nematodes and fungi were recorded. Oribatid mites' community responded 3 months after treatment, although they were not significantly affected by the overall treatment regimen. Collembolans in total and species-specific abundance as well as the community endpoints (principal response curves, diversity measures) were adversely affected by moderate dosages of lindane. Effects were transient between 3 and 5 months after treatment with a recovery within 1 year. No significant effects could be detected for enchytraeids, nematodes and fungi. The study design and the obtained results allow for calculations of no observed effect concentrations below the highest treatment level for populations and for soil communities as defined entities, as well as effective concentrations. The paper discusses the limits of effect detection in the light of achievable coefficients of variation and by means of minimum detectable differences. Outdoor TME are useful to analyze and assess functional and structural endpoints in soil organisms' communities and their possible recovery after pesticide treatment within 1 year. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Nerger R.,University of Kiel | Beylich A.,IFAB Institute fur Angewandte Bodenbiologie GmbH | Fohrer N.,University of Kiel
Geoderma Regional | Year: 2016

The German regional long-term soil monitoring network (SMN) BDF-SH (Boden-Dauerbeobachtung Schleswig-Holstein) was assessed focusing on the quality of this soil monitoring network to detect and evaluate impacts of land-use change (LUC) from pasture to arable land on soil organic carbon (SOC) and biological soil properties. This included a review and evaluation of the monitoring methods to detect long-term SOC changes over time. Two loamy LUC study sites were selected from the monitoring program. The BDF-SH is not only focusing on monitoring of soil organic carbon but also on a wide range of data of soil chemistry, physics, biology and management at field scale. The quality of the SMN as a SOC monitoring was assessed using a catalogue of essential soil monitoring requirements which resulted in a classification of monitoring levels for each parameter. A SMN-specific method is given how to calculate SOC stock changes over time. Within seven and one year(s) respectively the conversion from pasture to arable land resulted in significant SOC losses of 19.4 Mg ha- 1 (19.8%) at the sandy loam site 11 and 27.2 Mg ha- 1 (20.2%) at the clay loam site 13. SOC measurements and microbiological parameters of the soil microbiological program confirmed and defined the results of the main program more precisely. Soil faunistic results underlined the impact of LUC on the soil ecosystem. Using evaluation schemes of the literature the quality of the SMN was evaluated as highly suitable to detect and evaluate SOC stock changes over time and further LUC impacts on the soil. Most of the assessed monitoring parameters of the SMN were evaluated as fulfilling the highest level. However, a SOC fractionation method could be included in the SMN to enable an even more thorough evaluation of SOC stock changes using SOC fraction measurements in process-based SOC modeling. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Beylich A.,IFAB Institute fur Angewandte Bodenbiologie GmbH | Oberholzer H.-R.,Reckenholz Tanikon ART Research Station | Schrader S.,Johann Heinrich Von Thunen Institute | Hoper H.,Landesamt fur Bergbau | Wilke B.-M.,TU Berlin
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2010

Investigations on soil compaction focused mainly on effects on soil physical parameters and on plant growth. Nevertheless, a substantial number of papers deal with effects of soil compaction on soil organisms (soil fauna, soil microorganisms) and biologically driven processes in soils (e.g., macropore formation, respiration rates, N-mineralisation). In view of soil and soil functions protection, there is an essential need to identify soil compaction threshold values with respect to soil biota and soil biological processes. No such values are currently available. Thus the aim of our study was to evaluate literature on the effects of soil compaction mainly in agricultural soils on soil organisms and soil biological processes (e.g., respiration, nitrification); to identify relevant parameters which are helpful for assessing soil compaction from the soil biological point of view; and to find out whether threshold values of soil structure parameters proposed by soil physicists correspond to harmful impacts on soil organisms and biological processes in soils. Our literature review showed that due to the high variability of experimental situations and conditions in the evaluated papers, especially in papers describing field investigations, no general effect of soil compaction was found. Negative and positive effects occurred with slight compaction as well as with strong compaction. A verification of the thresholds published to date for soil compaction was not possible based on the data evaluated. However, the fact that above an effective bulk density of 1.7gcm-3, only negative effects on microbial biomass and C-mineralisation were found confirms this value, proposed by soil physicists, also from the soil biological point of view. In order to provide a scientifically meaningful data base for the assessment of soil compaction, effects on soil biodiversity, related functions and processes, we recommend considering the following site and soil properties as essentials: land use, climate, soil type, texture, bulk density; soil organic matter content; pH value; soil moisture (water content/water tension); pore volume; macroporosity and air and/or water conductivity. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Ascher J.,University of Florence | Sartori G.,Museo Tridentino di Science Naturali | Graefe U.,IFAB Institute fur Angewandte Bodenbiologie GmbH | Thornton B.,James Hutton Institute | And 3 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2012

This study focuses on the biological and morphological development of humus profiles in forested Italian Alpine soils as a function of climate. Humus form description, systematic investigation of microannelid communities and polyphasic biochemical fingerprinting of soil microbial communities (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA)) were performed to compare sites differing in mean annual temperature due to different altitude and exposure. Although the soil biota showed complex responses, several differences in soil biological properties seem to be due to thermal differences. Although soil acidity also determines biological properties, it is not a state factor but rather influenced by them. The thickness of the organic layer and the acidification of the subjacent mineral horizon increased under cooler conditions (north-exposure; higher altitude), whereas the thickness of the A horizon inversely decreased. Species richness of microannelid assemblages was higher under warmer conditions (south-exposure; lower altitude) and the vertical distribution of microannelids shifted along the gradient to lower temperatures from predominant occurrence in the mineral soil to exclusive occurrence in the organic layer. Microbial biomass (total PLFA) was higher at the cooler sites; the prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria could be ascribed to their better adaptation to lower temperature, pH and nutrient contents. The δ 13C signatures of the PLFA markers suggested a lower decomposition rate at the cooler sites, resulting in a lower respiratory loss and an accumulation of weakly decomposed organic material. DGGE data supported the PLFA results. Both parameters reflected the expected thermal sequence. This multidisciplinary case study provided indications of an association of climate, mesofauna and microbiota using the humus form as an overall link. More data are however needed and further investigations are encouraged. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


Lehmitz R.,Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Gorlitz | Rombke J.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH | Jansch S.,ECT Oekotoxikologie GmbH | Kruck S.,Free University of Berlin | And 2 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD-theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south. Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press Source

Discover hidden collaborations