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Roma, Italy

Singleton D.R.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Richardson S.D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Richardson S.D.,IES Solutions | Aitken M.D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Biodegradation | Year: 2011

Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated "Pyrene Group 2" were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Singleton D.R.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Jones M.D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Jones M.D.,Procter and Gamble | Richardson S.D.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 2 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Barcoded amplicon pyrosequencing was used to generate libraries of partial 16S rRNA genes from two columns designed to simulate in situ bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in weathered, contaminated soil. Both columns received a continuous flow of artificial groundwater but one of the columns additionally tested the impact of biostimulation with oxygen and inorganic nutrients on indigenous soil bacterial communities. The penetration of oxygen to previously anoxic regions of the columns resulted in the most significant community changes. PAH-degrading bacteria previously determined by stable-isotope probing (SIP) of the untreated soil generally responded negatively to the treatment conditions, with only members of the Acidovorax and a group of uncharacterized PAH-degrading Gammaproteobacteria maintaining a significant presence in the columns. Additional groups of sequences associated with the Betaproteobacterial family Rhodocyclaceae (including those associated with PAH degradation in other soils), and the Thiobacillus, Thermomonas, and Bradyrhizobium genera were also present in high abundance in the biostimulated column. Similar community responses were previously observed during biostimulated ex situ treatment of the same soil in aerobic, slurry-phase bioreactors. While the low relative abundance of many SIP-determined groups in the column libraries may be a reflection of the slow removal of PAHs in that system, the similar response of known PAH degraders in a higher-rate bioreactor system suggests that alternative PAH-degrading bacteria, unidentified by SIP of the untreated soil, may also be enriched in engineered systems. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SEC-2013.5.1-1 | Award Amount: 5.13M | Year: 2014

In a disaster situation three things contribute to a success: having the right resource available in the shortest time, with the highest relevance and at the right location. Access to necessary information, communication with other rescuers and stakeholders as well as the availability of resources are key factors in minimizing damage and loss of life. Large scale disasters and crisis situations increase the requirements on man and material exponentially. Additional challenges, in particular in cross border events, include language barriers, knowhow and organizational barriers and technical barriers (communication and data exchange). To address this challenge it will be necessary to analyse three defining factors: 1. Past responses to critical events and disasters in terms of time and cost 2. The data and data management tool used by crisis managers and first responders 3. The organisational structures of the crisis managers and first responders This analysis will enable the definition of a concept for a common information space. A requirement for a successful pan European information space is the definition of a common taxonomy. The common information space, which implies an EU wide standardization activity, will widen the EU wide market for organization developing solutions and tools for crisis management.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SST.2008.4.1.2. | Award Amount: 3.91M | Year: 2009

SAVE ME aims to develop a system that detects natural (i.e. earthquake, fire,) and man-made (i.e. terrorist attacks) disaster events in public transport terminals / vehicles and critical infrastructures (i.e. tunnels, and bridges) and that supports quick and optimal mass evacuation guidance, to save the lives of the general public and the rescuers, giving particular emphasis to the most vulnerable travellers (i.e. children, elderly and disabled). To achieve this, it develops a common ontological framework for hazard recognition, classification and mitigation, innovative algorithms on human behaviour under stress, panic and strong emotions, standardised interface elements for intuitive human guidance, a holistic disaster mitigation strategy and intelligent agents algorithms for guidance personalisation. It employs a Wireless Sensor Network for emergency detection, environmental awareness and travellers position and movements monitoring, as well as a fault tolerant communication network infrastructure. It integrates simulator model data with real time data from these sensors, to reach enhanced crowd behaviour models and uses them in a Decision Support System, to supervise the overall disaster mitigation operation. Thus, it supports the infrastructure operator, guides the rescue team through PDA and the trapped travellers by environmental displays and audio systems, as well as personalised guidance in their mobile phone to the nearest safe and free exit, taking into account their profile (i.e. disability, agility, language, etc.). It also develops appropriate training curricula, content and tools for operators, rescuers and the general public; guidelines to the infrastructure / vehicle operators and designers and standardisation proposals to the policy makers. All project developments are thoroughly and iteratively tested and optimised by lab tests as well as two in pilot sites, at a metro station in Newcastle (UK) and the Gotthard tunnel (Switzerland).


Patent
IES Solutions | Date: 2011-02-28

The present invention provides a safe, low-cost, effective composition and method for the remediation of contaminated subsurface material, the composition comprising solid alkaline material preferably in combination with stabilizing agents, that can be used to increase or maintain the pH of a subsurface zone and improve the performance of in situ treatment processes.

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